Description of Residence for Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii) in Canada
Section 33 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) prohibits damaging or destroying the residence of a listed threatened, endangered, or extirpated species. SARA defines residence as: “a dwelling-place, such as a den, nest or other similar area or place, that is occupied or habitually occupied by one or more individuals during all or part of their life cycles, including breeding, rearing, staging, wintering, feeding or hibernating” [s.2(1)].
The prohibition comes into effect in different ways depending on the jurisdiction responsible for the species. As a migratory bird protected under the Migratory Bird Convention Act, the Sprague’s Pipit is under federal jurisdiction. This means the residence prohibition is in effect on all lands on which the species occurs immediately upon its addition to the legal list of species at risk.
The following description of residence for the Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii) was created for the purposes of increasing public awareness and aiding enforcement of the above prohibition. Sprague’s Pipits are known to have one type of residence – the nest.
Common Name – Sprague’s Pipit
Scientific Name – Anthus spragueii
Current COSEWICStatus & Year of Designation – Threatened (2000)
Occurrence in Canada – The Canadian range of the Sprague's Pipit is largely confined to the grassland and aspen parkland regions of the prairie provinces1. In Canada, the Sprague’s Pipit breeds primarily in native prairie from the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in southern and central Alberta2, to west-central and south-western Manitoba3. A single confirmed breeding record also occurred in south-central British Columbia4 (Figure 1).
Rationale for Designation – Continued loss of breeding habitat and rapidly declining population throughout its range1.
Figure 1. Known distribution of the Sprague’s Pipit (Anthus spragueii) in Canada.
1) The Nest
Physical Appearance and Context
Sprague’s Pipit nests are protected as a residence. Sprague’s Pipits are most common in native prairie of intermediate height and density, with few shrubs, and moderate amounts of residual vegetation and plant litter1. Pipits are rarely found in cultivated lands or in dense permanent cover planted for waterfowl management or soil conservation 1, 5, 6, 7. Furthermore, nesting has not been recorded in these habitats. However, pipits can occur regularly in areas where native grasses have been replaced with introduced forage (e.g., hayfields and seeded pastures), if vegetation structure is similar to native prairie 8, 9, 10. Breeding habitat becomes unsuitable immediately after burning, when livestock activity is intense, or when management, or lack thereof results in tall, dense vegetation invaded by shrubs and exotic plants 11, 12, 13, 14. The longevity of the impact will vary depending upon moisture, soil, and frequency of disturbance11, 14. Pipits are area-sensitive and are more likely to nest in native prairie patches greater than 65 ha15. In native pastures, nests are located in areas with increased amounts of residual (dead) vegetation and taller grasses (~ 20 cm in height)16, 17. Pipits avoid placing their nests in areas with a large coverage of bare ground or in areas where residual vegetation has been removed through grazing, fire, or mowing16.
The nest is located in a depression below ground level, usually at the base of tussocks of grass, and is composed of coarse and fine grasses woven in a cup11. Long grasses growing beside the nest are typically interwoven to form a dome18 (Figure 2). Runways are often located at the nest entrance, and can extend up to 15 cm in length18. On average, the interior of the nest is 7.6 cm in diameter and 3.8 cm in depth, the entrance hole is 5.1 cm19. Females lay 2 to 6 eggs (typically 4 or 5) and incubate them for 10-15 days1, 11, 20, 21. The eggs are grayish white to pale buff with olive-brown to purplish-brown markings. They are subelliptical to oval and are approximately 21 x 15 mm11 (Figure 3).
The function of the nest residence is to provide protection, shelter, and the required conditions for egg laying, incubation, and hatching as well as the rearing of young.
Damage and Destruction of the Residence
Any activity that destroys the function of the nest (i.e. site used for laying, incubation, and brood rearing) would constitute damage or destruction of the residence. This would include, but not limited to, preventing access to the nest, mowing/haying or destroying the nest, or removing vegetation immediately adjacent to, and above the nest.
Period and Frequency of Occupancy
Nest building usually begins early to mid-May, and clutches are typically initiated from the second week of May to the end of July, but may extend into August11, 22. The young leave the nest between 10-13 days of age11, 20. Each nest is used once and new nests are built for subsequent nesting attempts, typically within 100 m of the original nest 20, 23. The nest site should remain a residence from the time of construction of the nest until the entire brood leaves the nest (approximately 30 days within May-August).
4McConnell, S. D., R. Van den Driessche, T. D. Hooper, G. L. Roberts, and A. Roberts. 1993. First occurrence and breeding of Sprague's Pipit, Anthus spragueii, for British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat.107:222-223.
5 Dale, B. and G. McKeating. 1996. Finding common ground – the nongame evaluation of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan in Canada. Pp 258-265 IN Proceedings of 7th International Waterfowl Symposium, J.t. Ratti (editor). Ducks Unlimited, Memphis
7 Dale, B., M. Norton, C. Downes, and B. Collins. In press. Monitoring as a means to focus research and conservation – the Grassland Bird Monitoring example. Proceedings of Partners in Flight conference.
9 De Smet, K. D. and M. P. Conrad. 1997. Management and research needs for Baird's Sparrows and other grassland species in Manitoba. Pp. 83-86. in Provincial Museum of Alberta Natural History Occasional Paper No. 15: proceedings of the second endangered species and prairie conservation workshop (Holroyd, G. L., G. Burns and H. C. Smith, eds.). Provincial Museum of Alberta Natural History, Edmonton AB.
12Johnson, D. H, L. D. Igl, J.A. Dechant, M. L. Sondreal,. C. M. Goldade, M. P. Nenneman, and B. R. Euliss. 1998. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Sprague’s Pipit. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND. 10 p.
15 Davis, S. K. 2004. Detecting area sensitivity of grassland passerines: effects of patch size, patch shape, and vegetation structure on bird abundance and occurrence in southern Saskatchewan. Auk 121:1130-1145.
25Prescott, D. R. C. 1997. Status of the Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii) in Alberta. Alberta Environmental Protection, Wildlife Management Division, Wildlife Status Report No. 10, Edmonton, AB. 14 pp.
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