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COSEWIC assessment and status report on the frosted glass-whiskers in Canada

COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report
on the
Frosted Glass-whiskers
Sclerophora Peronella
in Canada
Nova Scotia population
British Columbia population

Frosted Glass-whiskers

Nova Scotia population - Special concern
British Columbia population - Data deficient
2005


COSEWIC
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada


COSEPAC

Comité sur la situation des espèces en péril au Canada

COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species. COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. This report may be cited as follows:

COSEWIC 2005. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the frosted glass-whiskers Sclerophora peronella in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 28 pp.

Production note

COSEWIC would like to acknowledge Steven B. Selva for writing the status report on the frosted glass-whiskers Sclerophora peronella prepared under contract with Environment Canada, overseen and edited by René Belland, Co-chair (Mosses and Lichens), COSEWIC Plants and Lichens Subcommittee.

For additional copies contact:

COSEWIC Secretariat
c/o Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0H3

Tel.: (819) 997-4991 / (819) 953-3215
Fax: (819) 994-3684
COSEWIC E-mail
COSEWIC Website

Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur le sclérophore givré (Sclerophora peronella) au Canada.

Cover illustration

Frosted glass-whiskers – Illustration by Lisa Weiss.

©Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2005
Catalogue No. CW69-14/449-2005E-PDF
ISBN 0-662-40662-1
HTML: CW69-14/449-2005E-HTML
ISBN 0-662-40663-X

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Assessment Summary

Assessment Summary – May 2005

Common name: Frosted glass-whiskers (Nova Scotia population)

Scientific name: Sclerophora peronella

Status: Special Concern

Reason for designation: This tiny cryptic stubble lichen is very rare or threatened over much of its global range. Two of the three known locations of this species in Canada are in Nova Scotia. Despite considerable efforts to locate this and other rare calicioid lichens in the province, this lichen is known only from the exposed heartwood of red maple trees in mature/old growth hardwood forest. Threats include potential habitat loss and degradation associated with the decline of old growth forest ecosystems. However, in Nova Scotia each of the two populations appear healthy and are situated within large protected areas on Cape Breton Island.

Occurrence: Nova Scotia

Status history: Designated Special Concern in May 2005. Assessment based on a new status report.

 

Assessment Summary – May 2005

Common name: Frosted glass-whiskers (British Columbia population)

Scientific name: Sclerophora peronella

Status: Data Deficient

Reason for designation: This tiny cryptic stubble lichen is very rare or threatened over much of its global range. The species is known from only one site in the north-central part of the province where it was found once on a large cottonwood. Although search effort for stubble lichens has been extensive in regions farther south within the province, search effort in the northern region where the species was found was inadequate.

Occurrence: British Columbia

Status history: Species considered in May 2005 and placed in the Data Deficient category. Assessment based on a new status report.

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Executive Summary

Frosted Glass-whiskers
Sclerophora Peronella
(Nova Scotia population / British Columbia population)

Species information

Frosted glass-whiskers (Sclerophora peronella) belongs to a group of lichenized fungi known, colloquially, as calicioid or “stubble” lichens because of their tiny stalked spore-bearing structures. The species has been found on the bark and wood of old trees and can be recognized by the pale colour of its spore-bearing apothecia that are raised on stalks 0.5 to 0.8 mm above the substrate. The main body (thallus) of the lichen is imbedded in the substrate.

Distribution

Sclerophora peronella is known from only three locations in Canada and is rare to extremely rare throughout its range. The current known global distribution includes Europe (Scotland, Germany, Moravia, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, France, Austria, Italy, and Estonia), where it had previously been considered endemic, the Caucases in Russia, western Oregon in the United States, and from British Columbia and Nova Scotia in Canada.

Habitat

Sclerophora peronella occurs on hardwoods, usually on exposed heartwood of living trunks, and more rarely on bark. It is often associated with mature and old-growth coniferous and deciduous forests, but also occurs in savannas and parklands. In Canada, the specimen from British Columbia was collected on bark at the base of a large black cottonwood in a rich, shady cottonwood stand. Both of the collections from Nova Scotia were on exposed heartwood of living red maple trees growing in old-growth northern hardwood stands.

Biology

Found exclusively on the wood and bark of older trees, S. peronella seems to prefer stable humidity and small temperature fluctuations in microhabitats of intermediate light. Despite their small size, S. peronella thalli in Canada appear to be healthy, with apothecia containing mature spores. These spores are distributed by wind, rain, and probably by invertebrates.

Population sizes and trends

The entire known physical area of coverage for S. peronella in the three known Canadian locations is probably no more than one square metre. It is not possible to determine whether these populations are increasing, remaining stable, or are declining in size.

Limiting factors and threats

The available data suggests that S. peronella prefers the environmental stability associated with old-growth forests. Unfortunately, such habitat has been in decline across Canada and throughout most of the world. Habitat destruction from logging of old forests is a threat in parts of the species range. The threat to the habitat continues to be a problem by atmospheric pollutants in much of the worldwide range. Pollutants threaten both the tree and the lichen growing on the tree.

Special significance of the species

Sclerophora peronella is currently known from only three collections in Canada and from just a few locations in the United States, Russia and several European countries. The ecological significance is that the species is recognized as an old-growth forest indicator species. Calicioid lichens and fungi are considered our most sensitive biomonitors of forest ecosystem health.

Existing protection or other status designations

Besides being redlisted in several European countries, S. peronella is not explicitly protected by any federal laws or any state/provincial/territorial wildlife acts or endangered species acts, nor is it protected by any international agreements or conventions. It is protected in Nova Scotia, however, by the Wilderness Areas Act that governs collecting and habitat destruction in Crown Lands Wilderness Areas, within which it is known to occur. No such protection is provided in the recreation area where S. peronella is found in British Columbia.

COSEWIC History

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Species designated at meetings of the full committee are added to the list. On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. SARA establishes COSEWIC Secretariat as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process.

COSEWIC Mandate

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens.

COSEWIC Membership

COSEWIC Secretariat comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal agencies (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government members and the co-chairs of the species specialist and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittees. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species.

Definitions (November 2004)

Wildlife Species

A species, subspecies, variety, or geographically or genetically distinct population of animal, plant or other organism, other than a bacterium or virus, that is wild by nature and it is either native to Canada or has extended its range into Canada without human intervention and has been present in Canada for at least 50 years.

Extinct (X)

A wildlife species that no longer exists.

Extirpated (XT)

A wildlife species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere.

Endangered (E)

A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.

Threatened (T)

A wildlife species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.

Special Concern (SC)Footnotea

A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.

Not at Risk (NAR)Footnoteb

A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances.

Data Deficient (DD)Footnotec

A wildlife species for which there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction.

 

Canadian Wildlife Service

The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat.

 

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Species Information

Name and classification

Scientific name:
Sclerophora peronella (Ach.) Tibell
Synonyms:
Coniocybe peronella (Ach.) Tibell, Coniocybe hyalinella Nyl. Lichen peronellusAch.
Common name:
frosted glass-whiskers
Family:
Coniocybaceae
Major group:
Caliciales

Sclerophora peronella is a lichenized fungus in the Coniocybaceae. It belongs to a group of species that house their spores in tiny (0.2-2.0 mm tall) stalked apothecia that resemble beard stubble. Colloquially they are known as “stubble lichens” or “pin lichens”.

Description

Sclerophora peronella is distinguished by its pale pinkish apothecia, the reddish central core of the apothecial stalk visible in water, and the small, single-celled, smooth spores. The short-stalked (0.5-0.8 mm tall) apothecia (Figure 1) rise above an endosubstratic thallus where the fungi are associated with the green algal genus Trentepohlia. The capitulum of young apothecia is covered with a faint, lemon yellow pruina. As in many of the calicioid lichens, the asci that initially contain the spores within the hymenial layer of the apothecium disintegrate early in development of the apothecia. The spores, remnants of asci and paraphyses produce a powdery mass on the surface of the apothecium known as a mazaedium. The mazaedium in S. peronella is pale flesh-colored to yellowish brown, and may be covered with white pruina at maturity. The sexual spores, or ascospores, are spherical, hyaline, 3.0-3.5 microns in diameter, and have a smooth surface. No secondary substances have been detected.

Figure 1. Spore-bearing apothecium of Sclerophora peronella. The lichen body (thallus) lies within the substrate (illustration by Ms. Lisa Weiss).

Figure 1. Spore-bearing apothecium of Sclerophora peronella.

A detailed description of S. peronella can be found in Selva and Tibell (1999). This reference also includes a discussion of similar species of Sclerophorahttp://csdept.umfk.maine.edu/LichensWebsite/images.asp (link last accessed May 2005).

Designatable units

Two designatable units are recognized in this report, based on the occurrence of two distinct populations occurring in widely separated Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) ecozones (Atlantic and Pacific) and the very low likelihood of genetic exchange between the populations found in these zones.

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Distribution

Global range

The current known global distribution of S. peronella includes Europe (Scotland, Germany, Moravia, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, France, Austria, Italy, and Estonia), where it had previously been considered endemic (Tibell 1994), the Caucases in Russia (Titov 1998), the United States, and Canada (Figures 2 and Figure3).

Figure 2. European distribution of Sclerophora peronella

Figure 2. European distribution of Sclerophora peronella.

Figure 3. North American distribution of Sclerophora peronella

Figure 3. North American distribution of Sclerophora peronella.

The species is rare to extremely rare throughout its Eurasian range. According to Tibell (pers. comm.), S. peronella “it is rare--becoming more so particularly in Central Europe now.” Fewer than 20 collections have been made by Eric Peterson and Jouko Rikkinen in western Oregon (Willamette Valley) (Figure 5).

Canadian range

In Canada, S. peronella is only known from one collection in British Columbia made in 1991 (Goward et al. 1996) and two collections in Nova Scotia discovered in 1998 (Selva 1999). Recent attempts to locate it on Prince Edward Island (Selva 1998a), as well as during fieldwork conducted by S. Selva in 2001, have been unsuccessful.

Given the small size of the apothecia of S. peronella and its apparent rarity throughout its global range, it is not surprising that it has been found only recently in Canada. The same can be said for its recent discovery in the United States, as well as Russia. Many of the collectors cited in this report, e.g., Leif Tibell, Trevor Goward, Steve Selva, Eric Peterson, and Jouko Rikkinen have been engaged in numerous and intensive lichen surveys in Canada and the United States and are all recognized as students of the calicioid lichens and fungi. Yet, they have managed to collect relatively few specimens of S. peronella. The species prefers a substrate and a microhabitat that is not foreign to the majority of calicioid taxa: It has been collected on exposed heartwood and/or bark of trees that would harbour any number of other calicioid species on a typical day of collecting. Sclerophora peronella collections can only be verified with certainty in the lab after the spores have been examined and chemical tests conducted on the thallus. However, the genus is in fact easily recognized in the field, which is enough to cause a collector to make a collection. Furthermore, any fieldwork that inventories calicioid lichens in general would be sufficient to confirm the species presence at a site, particularly as one of its substrates, exposed heartwood, is easily recognized. In other words, a targeted search is not necessary to provide good inventory data for the species.

Herbarium visits were made by S. Selva in 2001 (see “Collections examined”) to determine present collections and the locations of those collections. However, no records were discovered at the regional herbaria visited as part of this investigation.

The apparent rarity of S. peronella in British Columbia is supported by considerable negative evidence (Appendix 1), as calicioid diversity has been intensively studied in this province over a period of 30 years. In 1972 Leif Tibell (Tibell 1975) undertook a comprehensive assessment of calicioid richness at five localities across the southern third of the province, from Vancouver Island to Glacier National Park. A few years later Willa Noble initiated an intensive study of lichen floristics in the Coastal Douglas-fir Zone on southeastern Vancouver Island. This study yielded a total of 5500 specimens, including 12 calicioid species (Noble 1982). Irwin Brodo began studying the lichen flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii) in 1967, and subsequently has amassed approximately 5000 collections from all portions of the archipelago, resulting in a report of nine calicioid species (Brodo, unpublished checklist). Brodo's investigations were supplemented by Tor Toensberg and Trevor Goward in 2003, though with no increase in the calicioid flora. In 1995 Steve Selva collected about 500 calicioid specimens from the Robson Valley of east-central British Columbia. More recently Trevor Goward has undertaken surveys of calicioid diversity at 21 localities in the southern half of the province, resulting in approximately 1500 calicioid collections out of a total sample size of about 6000 specimens.

All of the localities above are mapped in Figure 4 (see also Appendix 1). Though the localities themselves are small, collectively they represent a fairly thorough inventory of calicioid richness in the southern half of British Columbia. Moreover, as calicioid diversity appears to decrease northwards (Tibell 1994), it seems unlikely that the northern portions of the province will contribute additional species. Farther south, in the American Pacific Northwest, Eric Peterson (2000) and Jouko Rikkinen (2003) have collected 1500 and 2100 calicioid specimens respectively, with an emphasis on southwest Washington and northwest Oregon.

Figure 4. Major collection localities for calicioid lichens in British Columbia and the adjacent U.S.A. Numbers correspond to localities in Appendix 1. Location #4 is the single known locality of Sclerophora peronella in British Columbia.

Figure 4. Major collection localities for calicioid lichens in British Columbiaand the adjacent U.S.A.

Additional search effort for calicioid lichens in the American Pacific Northwest was undertaken by the USDA Forest Service (J Harpel, pers comm 2005; USDA Forest Service, 2003). In two pilot studies, some 750 plots (Figure 5) were searched for a target set of bryophyte and lichen species that were closely associated with old-growth. Calicioid lichens were included on the list of target species. Some 20,000 bryophyte and lichen collections resulted from this study and Sclerophora peronella was not found.

Figure 5. Distribution of 750 sampling plots for bryophytes and lichens for pilot studies conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Interior Bureau of Land Management from 2000 to 2003. Calicioid lichens were included among the target species. The two locations marked with an “X” show where earlier collections of Sclerophora peronella were made by Eric Peterson in Willamette Valley in 1997 and 1998 (collections EBP#2746 and EBP#2663).

Figure 5. Distribution of 750 sampling plots for bryophytes and lichens for pilot studies conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Interior Bureau of Land Management from 2000 to 2003.

Collecting for calicioid lichens in northeastern North America has, likewise, been both extensive and intensive over the past two decades (Figure 6). By far the greatest part of this work has been carried out by Steve Selva, who in the process has become the principal North American authority on the taxonomy and habitat ecology of the calicioid lichens and fungi. Formal and detailed surveys, typically requiring six to eight hours of fieldwork per site, have been completed by Selva in 77 northern hardwoods, spruce-fir, eastern hemlock, and eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) forests throughout the Maritime Provinces, in upstate New York, and the northern New England States (Selva 2003). An indication of the intensity of these efforts is that 12 or more calicioid species per stand have been found at 33 different sites in the northeast. The two stands in Nova Scotia where S. peronella were found had the richest overall diversity of calicioids (21 and 20 species, respectively) of all investigated hardwood forests in eastern North America. The total number of calicioid specimens collected by Selva and other lichenologists in the region is >3,000.

Figure 6. Major collecting localities for calicioid lichens in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, 1985-2004. Locality numbers correspond to those given in Appendix 2. The only eastern North American records of Sclerophora peronella are at localities 44 and 45, not mapped separately because of their close proximity to each other.

Figure 6. Major collecting localities for calicioid lichens in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, 1985‑2004.

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Habitat

Habitat requirements

Sclerophora peronella has been found on bark and lignum of old deciduous trees such as Acer, Fagus, Fraxinus, Quercus, Sorbus, Tilia and Ulmus in humid and rather shaded situations, and more rarely on lignum of Alnus, Betula, Fagus, Populus, and Malus (Tibell 1999). Tibell also notes (pers. comm.) that “it usually occurs on wood of hardwoods--usually on decorticated parts in hollows of living trunks and more rarely on bark. It is often associated with old-growth forests, but also occurs in parklands and on the margins of old deciduous forests.”

According to Eric Peterson (pers. comm.), S. peronella “mainly grows on large trunks of old Quercus garryana in open savannas. One collection is from a large old Acer macrophyllum, and another is from a very odd habitat; a somewhat young Abies grandis (approximately 100 years old) within an old growth Douglas fir forest”. Describing the 14 collections he has made, Jouko Rikkinen (pers. comm.) says the species is “relatively common only on aged hardwoods in the Willamette Valley (Oregon). In other types of forests I only found a few small populations, mostly in riparian old-growth stands”. It should be noted that the region in Canada most similar in climate and vegetation to the Willamette Valley is the Puget Sound area of southeast Vancouver Island where Sclerophora peronella has not yet been found despite the earlier intensive collecting efforts of Noble (1982).

The specimen from British Columbia was corticolous (on bark) at the base of a large black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) in a rich, rather shady cottonwood stand. Both of the specimens from Nova Scotia were lignicolous on the exposed heartwood of living Acer rubrum growing in old-growth northern hardwood stands.

Sclerophora peronella is likely to be confined to maritime areas in Canada, owing to the frost sensitivity of its trentepohlian algal partner.

Trends

The availability of the habitat, environmentally stable older forests in coastal regions, is declining. For example in the Acadian Forest Region where it is currently known in Nova Scotia, little intact habitat remains, with logging cited as the main cause of habitat loss (World Wildlife Fund 2000).

British Columbia fares much better in this regard, as large tracts of older forest still remain. Although S. peronella may be known today from only one collection in a black poplar stand, the available data suggests that older coniferous and deciduous forests may both be considered suitable habitat for this species. However, because of the low numbers of specimens collected in Canada over the last 30 years, survival trends cannot be determined.

Protection/ownership

Both NS sites that presently have the lichen, the Sugarloaf Mountain and Margaree River sites, are Crown Land Wilderness Areas that are afforded official protected status by the province of Nova Scotia under the Wilderness Areas Act.

The site in BC that has the lichen, Kitsumkalum Lake site, is best described as a provincial forest service Recreational Reserve with a portion set aside as a demonstration forest for small scale logging, e.g., horse logging (K. Kriese, pers. comm.). There is nothing in the currently established objectives for this stand that protects the S. peronella site. 

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Biology

General

This species is found exclusively on the wood and bark of older trees. The Canadian occurrences of S. peronella have all been with apothecia bearing mature spores. Based on the available habitat descriptions, the species seems to have a preference for old-growth forests with stable humidity and small temperature fluctuations.

Reproduction

The thallus of S. peronella is imbedded in the substrate, and has not been observed to produce vegetative propagules. All thalli of S. peronella at Canadian sites have apothecia containing mature spores. As a result, it is the sexual spores housed in the capitulum of the stalked apothecia that must be distributed to new locations. This is thought to take place via wind, rain and, to a lesser degree, by invertebrates. These sexual spores must land and germinate in close proximity to a compatible green algal partner before lichenization can occur. The world’s leading authority on the calicioid lichens and fungi, Leif Tibell, has indicated (pers. comm.) that longevity of thalli, age at sexual maturity, and generation time, remain unanswered questions within this group of species. According to Canters et al. (1991), the distribution of lichens "is governed by microclimatic factors that influence higher plants in different ways or not at all." Therefore microclimatic factors of the wood substrate such as pH, water holding capacity, or chemistry, may influence longevity of thalli, age at sexual maturity, and generation time.

Survival

It is generally assumed that the establishment of this and other lichen species is determined by such factors as age, texture, pH, moisture-holding capacity and nutrient status of the substrate, as well as degree of illumination and humidity of the microenvironment, inclination of surfaces, aspect, air pollution and stand continuity (e.g., Barkman 1958, Brodo 1973, James, Hawksworth and Rose 1977). However, specific microclimatic and physiological requirements for S. peronella have yet to be determined. According to Mattson and Middelborg (2000), microclimatic humidity is, perhaps, the most important ecological factor for explaining the distribution of calicioid species: the microclimatic humidity is primarily a product of topography and vegetation, not of precipitation.

Movements/dispersal

It is difficult to know whether the populations in British Columbia, Nova Scotia, and at isolated locations in the United States, Europe and Russia, are remnant populations from a previously continuous range, or if each is the consequence of a long distance dispersal event. Although the thalli at each of the disparate sites are of very limited size, they are healthy and capable of reproducing. However, given the species’ apparent preference for old forest habitat, the destruction and/or unavailability of such habitat is a reason for concern. Dispersal by sexual spores means that the fungal spore must land close to a compatible alga and on the appropriate substrate before another lichen can grow. If vegetative propagules were produced, the propagule containing both fungal and algal partners would only have to land on suitable substrate since both partners are already present. However, the lack of vegetative propagules, and the production of sexual spores only, presents an additional challenge for survival of the lichen.

Nutrition and interspecific interactions

Sclerophora peronella, as a lichenized fungus, satisfies its need for carbon by growing symbiotically with a photosynthetic algal partner. It receives water and other nutrients from the atmosphere. Because of the efficient adaptation for absorption from the atmosphere (as in most lichens and bryophytes), any pollutants soluble in the atmospheric moisture will also be efficiently absorbed by the lichen. The species does not seem to be impacted by interactions with other organisms based on the Selva’s field observations and literature searches.

Behaviour/adaptability

As perhaps our most sensitive biomonitors of forest ecosystem health, the calicioid lichens and fungi, including S. peronella, remain one of the forest’s most elusive and poorly known inhabitants. The habitat data suggests that this species prefers the stable environment of established forests--particularly those associated with older stands. Like other calicioid lichens, it appears to be intolerant of disturbance and, considering the limited number of records available, its global range is perhaps directly linked to the worldwide decline of suitable old-forest habitat. 

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Population Sizes and Trends

The entire known area of coverage for S. peronella, in the three known Canadian locations, is probably no more than one square metre. At each locality, the species was found only once, in spite of repetitive collecting within the localities. Each collection record is interpreted as representing a single contiguous thallus with each bearing several apothecia. Approximately 75% of the apothecia appeared to be mature. It is not known whether these populations are increasing, remaining stable, or are declining in size. The three Canadian occurrences are as follows:

  1. British Columbia, Skeena River Basin, Kitsumkalum Lake, Goward 1991-1139. Trevor Goward (pers. comm.) describes the location as a rather shady cottonwood stand at the south end of Kitsumkalum Lake.
  2. Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Inverness County. Sugarloaf Mountain Wilderness Area, 1998, Selva 7628. Described by the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources as an immature old-growth stand and by Selva (1999) as an old-growth stand, this protected northern hardwoods forest is located at the northeast end of Sugarloaf Mountain above East Big Intervale Road.
  3. Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Inverness County, Margaree River Wilderness Area, 1998, Selva 7852. This is another protected northern hardwoods forest described by the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources as an immature old-growth stand and by Selva (1999) as an old-growth stand. It was surveyed in its southwestern section, along the north-facing slopes above First Brook Pool.

Estimating “population” size is difficult since field identification has to be verified by microscope studies. In the research that S. Selva has been engaged in over the past 15 years, an assessment of environmental continuity in forested ecosystems is predicated on the compilation of as complete an inventory of the species in the survey area as possible. Since many of these species are rare, even at ancient forest sites, the Relevé Analysis for Classification approach to sampling (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974), a form of “intelligent meander”, is preferred. While mindful of the disadvantages of preferential sampling--that of “being biased by subjectivity and of not allowing statistical inferences from the data”, the advantage of “allowing the highest sampling intensity” with “less likelihood of missing localized rich areas” (Nimis 1991) makes this the sampling option of choice. Numerous replicates increase the chances that rarer species would be captured (Selva 1994, 1996). As a result of such intensive collecting, if only a single record is reported for a site--as it has for S. peronella at each of the populations in Nova Scotia, for example, S. Selva is confident in describing the species as extremely rare. To date, the continuity of 76 forests in northeastern North America has been assessed by the S. Selva using the methods described above. In spite of this concerted search effort, S. peronella has been found only twice. Detailed accounts of search effort throughout the species’ range are presented in the section Canadian range, and in Figures 4-6.

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Limiting Factors and Threats

Sclerophora peronella seems to have a preference for the environmental stability associated with older established forests. Therefore habitat destruction from logging of old forests is a potential threat. Given the sensitivity of this and other calicioid species to disturbance--including acid rain and other atmospheric pollutants that affect lichens generally, the ultimate fate of this species depends in large part on the protection and management of the type of forest ecosystems in which it tends to occur. Sclerophora peronella is also probably confined to coastal or near-coastal regions, owing to the known frost sensitivity of its alga partner, Trentepohlia.

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Special Significance of the Species

Sclerophora peronella is considered rare to extremely rare throughout its range and is red listed in Austria (Hafellner 2000), Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Tibell 1999) and is declining in Italy (Nimis 2000). The species has an important ecological significance.

The lichen is an old-growth forest indicator species, recognized by Selva (1994, 1996) who considered the calicioid lichens and fungi our most sensitive biomonitors of forest ecosystem health. Small changes in the microenvironment, resulting from changes in the forest ecosystem, will influence the survival of the lichen, in turn reflecting the health of the forest.

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Existing Protection or Other Status Designations

Of the three known localities of S. peronella in Canada, the two from Nova Scotia are afforded provincial protective status as Crown Lands Wilderness Areas under the Wilderness Areas Act. The site in British Columbia, however, does not currently provide official protective status.

On an international level, the species is red listed in Austria, Denmark, Sweden and Finland but is not listed or proposed for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act or by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).  The species is not the subject of any international agreements, nor is it covered by any international conventions.  The Nature Conservancy has not given S. peronella a global rank or a Canadian national rank, nor does it have any state rank. It has not been assigned any provincial rank by the Conservation Data Centres or Natural Heritage Information Centres. Sclerophora peronella is not protected by any federal laws or any provincial/territorial wildlife acts or endangered species acts.

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Summary of Status Report

Sclerophora peronella is known from fewer than 20 collections for all of North America, including one in British Columbia and two in Nova Scotia.  The remainder are collections from western Oregon. It is possible, however, that due to its minute size and only relatively recent discovery in North America, further fieldwork in Canada will result in the finding of additional localities. To date, S. Selva has searched a total of 76 forested sites in northeastern North America with an emphasis on Maine, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, southeastern Ontario and southwestern Quebec. No new sites were found beyond the original discoveries. New localities for other calicioid lichens were found, however, during recent targeted searches for S. peronella. Current indications are that S. peronella appears to be a very rare species in Canada and North America.

For the world as a whole, the species is considered rare to extremely rare throughout its range and is red listed in Austria (Hafellner 2000), Denmark, Sweden and Finland (Tibell 1999). It is declining in Italy (Nimis 2000), and is known from only single records or from only a few collections in Russia and several other European countries. 

Each of the Nova Scotia collections was examined and determined to have apothecia that were in good condition, containing spores that appeared to be viable; the apothecia also did not demonstrate any of the negative symptoms associated with air pollution or attack by parasites.  Given the sensitivity of this and other calicioid species to disturbance, it was clear that S. peronella was healthy at the two sites.  Likewise, the species at the collection site reported by Trevor Goward for British Columbia was also healthy. However, the health of such disparate populations is difficult to judge when the species is so small that it cannot be positively identified in the field, appears to be rare to extremely rare throughout its range, and has been encountered only once in each of two forest ecosystems.

Given the available data, S. peronella seems to prefer the ecological stability associated with mature and old-growth forests.  Unfortunately, according to a report from the World Wildlife Fund (2000) on the status of the Acadian forest in northeastern North America--within which it resides in Nova Scotia, little intact habitat remains in this ecoregion, with only about 3-5 percent of this forest in presettlement condition.  British Columbia fares much better in this regard, as large tracts of older forests still remain and undoubtedly harbour more populations of this rare species.

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Technical Summary (British Columbia)

Sclerophora peronella

Frosted glass-whiskers (British Columbia population) – sclérophore givré (population de la Colombie-Britannique)

Range of Occurrence in Canada:

British Columbia

Extent and Area information

extent of occurrence (EO) (km²)
<1 km²
specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Not known
are there extreme fluctuations in EO (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unlikely
area of occupancy (AO) (km²)
<1 m²
specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Unknown
are there extreme fluctuations in AO (>1 order magnitude)?
Unknown
number of extant locations
3
specify trend in # locations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Stable
are there extreme fluctuations in # locations (>1 order of magnitude)?
No
habitat trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in area, extent or quality of habitat
Unknown

Population information

generation time (average age of parents in the population) (indicate years, months, days, etc.)
Unknown
number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction) in the Canadian population (or, specify a range of plausible values)
Approx. 75% of apothecia were mature
total population trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in number of mature individuals
Unknown
if decline, % decline over the last/next 10 years or 3 generations, whichever is greater (or specify if for shorter time period)
are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unknown
is the total population severely fragmented (most individuals found within small and relatively isolated (geographically or otherwise) populations between which there is little exchange, i.e., <1 successful migrant / year)?
Total worldwide population is severely fragmented
list each population and the number of mature individuals in each
British Columbia, Skeena River Basin, Kitsumkalum Lake
specify trend in number of populations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Unknown
are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unlikely

Threats (actual or imminent threats to populations or habitats

  • Given the available data, Sclerophora peronella seems to prefer the ecological stability associated with mature and old-growth forests.  These ecosystems are under threat worldwide from habitat loss and degradation. No specific threats in this regard were noted for the collection localities.
  • Like certain other groups of lichens, this species is sensitive to acid rain and other atmospheric pollutants that affect lichens generally.

Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Unlikely

does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?
Several small populations exist in Oregon and others in Europe.
status of the outside population(s)?
Unknown.
is immigration known or possible?
Immigration is possible but unlikely.
would immigrants be adapted to survive here?
Possibly.
is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?
Yes, but it is declining.

Quantitative Analysis

Not applicable

Status and Reasons for Designation

Status: Data Deficient

Alpha-numeric code: Not applicable

Reasons for Designation: This tiny cryptic stubble lichen is very rare or threatened over much of its global range. The species is known from only one site in the north-central part of the province where it was found once on a large cottonwood. Although search effort for stubble lichens has been extensive in regions farther south within the province, search effort in the northern region where the species was found was inadequate.

Applicability of Criteria

  • Criterion A (Declining Total Population): Population decline not documented.
  • Criterion B (Small Distribution, and Decline or Fluctuation): Not applicable.
  • Criterion C (Small Total Population Size and Decline): Not applicable since the number of individuals is not known.
  • Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution): Not applicable.
  • Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis): Not applicable.

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Technical Summary (Nova Scotia)

Sclerophora peronella

Frosted glass-whiskers (Nova Scotia population) – sclérophore givré (population de la Nouvelle-Écosse)

Range of Occurrence in Canada:

Nova Scotia

Extent and Area information

extent of occurrence (EO)(km²)
Estimated to be <100 km²
specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Historical decline of mature and old-growth forests in Canada has occurred
are there extreme fluctuations in EO (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unlikely
area of occupancy (AO) (km²)
about 3 km² of habitat available where species was found but actual area occupied was <1 m²
specify trend (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Unknown
are there extreme fluctuations in AO (>1 order magnitude)?
Unknown
number of extant locations
2
specify trend in # locations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Stable
are there extreme fluctuations in # locations (>1 order of magnitude)?
No
habitat trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in area, extent or quality of habitat
Extent of potential habitat declining

Population information

generation time (average age of parents in the population) (indicate years, months, days, etc.)
Unknown
number of mature individuals (capable of reproduction) in the Canadian population (or, specify a range of plausible values)
Approx. 75% of apothecia at each of the 2 sites were mature
total population trend: specify declining, stable, increasing or unknown trend in number of mature individuals
Unknown
if decline, % decline over the last/next 10 years or 3 generations, whichever is greater (or specify if for shorter time period)
are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unknown
is the total population severely fragmented (most individuals found within small and relatively isolated (geographically or otherwise) populations between which there is little exchange, i.e., <1 successful migrant / year)?
Total worldwide population is severely fragmented
list each population and the number of mature individuals in each

Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Inverness County

  1. Sugarloaf Mountain Wilderness Area
  2. Margaree River Wilderness Area
specify trend in number of populations (decline, stable, increasing, unknown)
Unknown
are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations (>1 order of magnitude)?
Unlikely

Threats (actual or imminent threats to populations or habitats

  • Given the available data, Sclerophora peronella seems to prefer the ecological stability associated with mature and old-growth forests. These ecosystems are under threat worldwide from habitat loss and degradation. No specific threats in this regard were noted for the collection localities.
  • Like certain other groups of lichens, this species is sensitive to acid rain and other atmospheric pollutants that affect lichens generally.

Rescue Effect (immigration from an outside source)

Unlikely

does species exist elsewhere (in Canada or outside)?
Several small populations exist in Oregon and others in Europe
status of the outside population(s)?
Unknown
is immigration known or possible?
Immigration is possible but unlikely
would immigrants be adapted to survive here?
Possibly
is there sufficient habitat for immigrants here?
Yes, but it is declining

Quantitative Analysis

Not applicable

Status and Reasons for Designation

Status: Special Concern

Alpha-numeric code: Not applicable

Reasons for Designation: This tiny cryptic stubble lichen is very rare or threatened over much of its global range. Two of the three known locations of this species in Canada are in Nova Scotia. Despite considerable efforts to locate this and other rare calicioid lichens in the province, this lichen is known only from the exposed heartwood of red maple trees in mature/old-growth hardwood forest. Threats include potential habitat loss and degradation associated with the decline of old-growth forest ecosystems. However, in Nova Scotia of the two populations appear healthy and are situated within large protected areas on Cape Breton Island.

Applicability of Criteria

  • Criterion A (Declining Total Population): Population decline not documented.
  • Criterion B (Small Distribution, and Decline or Fluctuation): May meet criterion for Endangered B1+2 (AO <500 km²), a (2 of the 3 locations, Canadian population is severely fragmented), b(iii) (inferred decline habitat based loss of old growth forest).
  • Criterion C (Small Total Population Size and Decline): Not applicable since we do not know the number of individuals.
  • Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution): May meet criterion for Threatened D2, based on small AO and small number of locations (2). However both Nova Scotia populations are within large protected areas where potential threats are mitigated.
  • Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis): Not applicable.

 

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Acknowledgements and Authorities Contacted

Acknowledgements

All individuals identified in the “Authorities contacted” section of this report have assisted, in one way or another, in the preparation of this report and I wish to thank all for their contributions.

Among the individuals I offer special thanks to are those who assisted me in the field and in arranging herbarium visits. At the head of that list are Stephen Clayden and Ernie Brodo, who assisted me in both regards while visiting New Brunswick and Ontario, respectively, and their wives Barbara Clayden and Fenja Brodo for their hospitality during these visits. Special thanks also to Alex Wilson, Ruth Newell, Donna Crossland, Anna Koffman, Rob Lee, Albert Dugal, and Alain Caissie.

Authorities contacted

  • Alvo, R. September 2001. Conservation Biologist, Ecological Integrity Branch, Parks Canada.
  • Amirault, D.L. September 2001. Wildlife Biologist – Species at Risk, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Sackville, N.B.
  • Bowman, I. September 2001. Senior Biologist, Rare, Threatened and Endangered Species, Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON
  • Brodo, I.M. May 2001. Research Scientist, retired, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, ON.
  • Breuss, O. January 2001. Research Scientist, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Botanische Abteilung, Wien, Austria.
  • Caissie, A. June 2001. Conservation Officer, Fundy National Park, Alma, NB.
  • Carroll, H. June 2001. Director, Parks and Recreation Division, Nova Scotia Department of Environment, Belmont, NS.
  • Clayden, S. May 2001. Research Scientist, The New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, NB.
  • Crossland, D. July 2001. Ecologist, Kouchibouguac National Park, NB.
  • Curley, R. September 2001. Program Manager, Habitat and Biodiversity Conservation, Fish and Wildlife Division, PEI Department of Fisheries, Aquaculture and Environment, Charlottetown, PE.
  • Donovan, M. September 2001. Biological Information Coordinator, BC Conservation Data Centre, Ministry of Sustainable Resources Management, Victoria, BC.
  • Dugal, A. June 2001. Naturalist, the Ottawa Region, Greely, ON.
  • Elderkin, M.F. September 2001. Species at Risk Biologist, Wildlife Division, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS.
  • Fowler, B.T. September 2001. Scientific Authority, Species Assessment, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON.
  • Gerriets, S. September 2001. Data Manager, Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, Sackville, NB.
  • Goulet, S. September 2001. Coordinator, Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) Secretariat, Ottawa, ON.
  • Goward, T. March 2001. Ecologist, Enlichened Consulting, Ltd., Clearwater, BC.
  • Hafellner, J. March 2001. Professor of Botany, Institut fur Botanik, Karl-Franzens Universitat, Austria.
  • Koffman, A. June 2001. Ecologist, County Board in Gavlegorg, Nature Conservation Department, Sweden.
  • Lavoie, G. September 2001. Ministère de l’Environnement du Québec, Direction du patrimoine écologique et du développement durable, Québec (Québec).
  • Laporte, P. September 2001. Biologiste principal, – Espèces en peril, Service canadien de la faune – Région du Québec, Environnement Canada, Sainte-Foy (Québec).
  • Lee, R.E. June 2001. Naturalist, the Ottawa Region, White Lake, ON.
  • Lynds, A. June 2001. Ecologist and Air Photo Interpreter, Nova Scotia Department of Environment, Protected Areas, Belmont, Colchester County, NS.
  • Newell, R. June 2001. E.C. Smith Herbarium, Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS.
  • Oldham, M.J. September 2001. Botanist/Herpetologist, Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC), Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON.
  • Peterson, E.November 2003. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, Nevada, USA.
  • Rikkinen, J.November 2003.Department of Botany, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
  • Tibell, L. March 2001. Professor of Botany, Department of Systematic Botany, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen, Sweden.
  • Titov, A.N. March 2001. Research Scientist, Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • Toner, M. September 2001. Species at Risk Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of Natural Resources and Energy, Fredericton, NB.
  • Wenting, R. September 2001. Canadian Wildlife Service (Ontario Region), Environment Canada, Nepean, ON.
  • Wilson, A. May 2001. Manager of Collections, Nova Scotia Museum of Natural Science, Halifax, NS.
  • Wissink, R. June 2001. Park Ecologist, Fundy National Park, Alma, NB.

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Information Sources

Barkman, J.J. 1958. Phytosociology and Ecology of Cryptogamic Epiphytes, Van Gorcum & Company, Assen. Netherlands.

Brodo, I. M. 1973. "Substrate Ecology." In The Lichens, edited by V. Ahmadjian and M.E. Hale, 401-41. Academic Press, New York, NY

Canters, K.J., H. Scholler, S. Ott, and H.M. Jahns. 1991. "Microclimatic Influences on Lichen Distribution and Community Development." Lichenologist 23: 237-52.

Goward, T. and O. Breuss, B. Ryan, B. McCune, H. Sipman and C. Scheidegger. 1996. Notes on the lichens and allied fungi of British Columbia III. The Bryologist 99: 439-449.

Hafellner, J. 2000. Red list of endangered lichens in Austria. [Web site: http://www-ang.kfunigraz.ac.at/~hafell/redlist.htm, accessed March 2001].

James, P. W., D.L. Hawksworth, and F. Rose. 1977. "Lichen Communities in the British Isles: A Preliminary Conspectus." In Lichen Ecology, edited by M.R.D. Seaward, 295-413. Academic Press New York.

Mattson J. and J. Middelborg. 2000. Keys to genera and species of Caliciales in Norway. [Web site: http://www.toyen.uio.no/botanisk/lav/LichenKey/Current/Middelborg/keyes.htm, accessed Oct. 2004].

Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology, Wiley, New York, NY.

Nimis, P.L. 1991. Developments in lichen community studies. Lichenologist 23: 215-225.

Nimis, P.L. 2000. Lichen database of Italy 1.0. [Web site: http://biobase. kfunigraz.ac.at/flechte/owa/askitalflo, accessed March 2001].

Noble, W. 1982. The lichens of the coastal Douglas-fir Dry Subzone of British Columbia. Ph.D. thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Peterson, E.B. 2000. Analysis and prediction of patterns in lichen communities over the western Oregon landscape. Ph.D. thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Rikkinen, J. 2003. Calicioid lichens and fungi in the forests and woodlands of western Oregon. Acta Botanica Fennica 175: 1-41.

Selva, S.B. 1994. "Lichen Diversity and Stand Continuity in the Northern Hardwoods and Spruce-Fir Forests of Northern New England and Western New Brunswick," The Bryologist 94: 424-28.

Selva, S.B. 1996. Using lichens to assess ecological continuity in northeastern forests, pp. 35-48. In M.B. Davis (ed.), Eastern Old-growth Forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Selva, S.B. 1998a. The Caliciales of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. An unpublished report prepared for the National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

Selva, S.B. 1999. Survey of epiphytic lichens of late successional northern hardwoods forests in northern Cape Breton Island. Unpubl. report prepared for Cape Breton Highlands National Park and Parks Canada.

Selva, S.B. 2003. Using calicioid lichens and fungi to assess ecological continuity in the Acadian Forest Ecoregion of the Canadian Maritimes. Forestry Chronicle 79: 550-558.

Selva, S.B. and L. Tibell. 1999. Lichenized and non-lichenized calicioid fungi from North America. The Bryologist 102: 377-397.

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 21: 1-128.

Tibell, L. 1980. "The Lichen Genus Chaenotheca in the Northern Hemisphere," Symbolae Botanicae Upsaliensis 23: 1-65.

Tibell, L. 1994. Distribution patterns and dispersal strategies of Caliciales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 116:159-202.

Tibell, L. 1999. “Calicioid lichens and fungi.” In ordic Lichen Flora, Volume 1, edited by T. Ahti, P.M. Jorgensen, H. Kristinsson, R. Moberg, U. Sochting, and G. Thor. Naturcentrum AB, Uddevalla.

Titov, A.N. 1998. New and rare calicioid lichens and fungi from relict tertiary forests of Caucasus and the Crimea. Folia Cryptogamia Estonica 32: 127-133.

USDA Forest Service. 2003. A Bryophyte and Lichen Random Grid Study, unpublished data, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region 6, and USDI Bureau of Interior, Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon.

World Wildlife Fund. 2000. Scientific Reports on the New England Acadian Forest and the Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests. Web site: http://worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/na/na0410_full.html [Accessed September 1, 2001].

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Biographical Summary of the Report Writer

Steve Selva is a Professor of Biology and Environmental Studies at theUniversityof Maine at Fort Kent. Having grown up in California, he received his baccalaureate degree in biology and botany from Humboldt State University in 1972, then went on to Iowa State University where he earned both a master’s and a PhD degree in systematic botany.

Since arriving in Maine in 1976, Dr. Selva has been engaged in research using lichens to assess the ecological continuity of northern hardwoods and coniferous forests in northern New England and Maritime Canada. These studies have shown that, not only do epiphytic lichen floras become richer over time--with older stands harbouring more rare species--but that the total number and presence of particular calicioid lichens and fungi collected at a site is, itself, an indicator of continuity. Given his familiarity with the calicioid lichens and fungi (Selva 1988, 1994, 1996, 1998b; Selva and Tibell 1999), and his familiarity with the literature and the works of colleagues studying the group in other parts of the world, Dr. Selva has brought these qualifications to bear during the preparation of this report.

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Collections Examined

In addition to searching for S. peronella in the field, herbarium collections at the following institutions were also visited and searched for specimens by S. Selva in 2001:

  • The E.C. Smith Herbarium at Acadia University, Wolfville, NS  B0P 1X0
  • The New Brunswick Museum, 277 Douglas Avenue, Saint John, NB E2K 1E5
  • The Nova Scotia Museum of Natural Science, 1747 Summer Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3A6
  • The National Herbarium of the Canadian Museum of Nature (Gatineau, Québec), P.O. Box 3443, Station D, Ottawa, ON K1P 6P4

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Appendix 1 - Major collection localities for calicioid lichens in British Columbia and the adjacent U.S.

Major collection localities for calicioid lichens in British Columbia and the adjacent U.S.
Site numbers correspond to the map in Figure 4 only.
SiteLocationMonthYearNumber of specimens / search effortCollector
1Robson Valley
June
1995
450 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityS. Selva
2Sicamous Creek
August
1995
200 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
3Tenise Creek
September
1995
75 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
4Kitsumkalum Lake
June
1996
20 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
5Wells Gray
August
1996
650 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
6Mount Cain
September
1996
35 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
7Adams River
September
1996
50 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
8Cummins Valley
July
1997
50 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
9Quesnel Lake
August
1999
15 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
10Robson Valley
August
1999
12 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
11Valemount
June
2000
1 calicioid specimen collected from vicinityT. Goward
12Williams Lake
September
2000
0 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
13Priest Lake
April
2001
15 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
14Ross Creek
April
2001
20 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
15Pacific Rim
July
2001
10 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
16Robson Valley
July
2001
80 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
17Beaver Valley
July
2002
50 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
18Mount Revelstoke
July
2002
20 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
19Mica Dam
July
2002
45 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
20Wood River
July
2002
20 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
21Robson Valley
October
2002
45 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
22Gwaii Haanas
July
2003
5 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityT. Goward
23Incomappleux Valley
October
2003
50 calicioid specimens collected from vicinityA. Arsenault
24Haida Gwaii (all of Queen Charlotte Islands)
 
1969-2004
Intensive investigation. 9 calicioid species collected.I.M. Brodo
25Southeastern Vancouver Island (north to Courtenay)
 
1974-1981
Intensive investigation. 12 calicioid species collected.W.J. Noble
26Southern Vancouver Island
 
1972
Thorough investigationL. Tibell
27Southern Wells Gray Provincial Park
 
1972
Thorough investigationL.Tibell
28Glacier National Park
 
1972
Thorough investigationL. Tibell
29Manning Provincial Park
 
1972
Thorough investigationL. Tibell
30Pemberton
 
1972
Thorough investigationL. Tibell

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Appendix 2. Major collecting localities for calicioid lichens in northeastern North America

Major collecting localities for calicioid lichens in northeastern North America, 1985-2004, and names of collectors. In some cases (Tuckerman Workshops, American Bryological and Lichenological Society [ABLS] excursion), groups of several or more knowledgeable lichenologists surveyed the localities noted. Site numbers correspond to the map in Figure 6 only.
SiteProvince or stateLocalityCollector, workshop, or excursion
1Maine, United States (U.S.)Big Reed PreserveS. Selva
2Maine, U.S.MusquacookS. Selva
3Maine, U.S.YankeetuladiS. Selva
4Maine, U.S.Lunksoos MountainS. Selva
5Maine, U.S.Number Nine MountainS. Selva
6Maine, U.S.Hedgehog MountainS. Selva
7Maine, U.S.Morrison MountainS. Selva
8Maine, U.S.Pennington PondS. Selva
9Maine, U.S.Charette Hill and other localities near Fort KentS. Selva
10Maine, U.S.Cross LakeS. Selva
11Maine, U.S.Bartlett StreamS. Selva
12Maine, U.S.Timoney MountainS. Selva
13Maine, U.S.Nixon SidingS. Selva
14New Hampshire, U.S.Nancy Brook RNAS. Selva
15New Hampshire, U.S.Gibbs Brook Research Natural AreaS. Selva
16New Hampshire, U.S.The Bowl Research Natural AreaS. Selva
17New Hampshire, U.S.Norton Pool Natural AreaS. Selva
18New Hampshire, U.S.Mountain Pond Candidate RNAS. Selva
19New York, U.S.Adirondack Mountain ReserveS. Selva
20New York, U.S.Ampersand MountainS. Selva
21New York, U.S.Forked Lake Forest PreserveS. Selva
22Vermont, U.S.The Cape RNAS. Selva
23Vermont, U.S.Chandler Ridge Candidate RNAS. Selva
24Vermont, U.S.Gifford Woods Natural AreaS. Selva
25New Brunswick, CanadaMt Carleton Prov. Park, Mount BaileyS. Selva
26New Brunswick, CanadaMt Carleton Prov. Park, Big BrookS. Selva
27New Brunswick, CanadaMt Carleton Prov. Park, Sagamook MountainS. Selva, S. Clayden
28New Brunswick, CanadaBass River, near AllardvilleS. Clayden
29New Brunswick, CanadaKouchibouguac National ParkK. Egger, A. Koffman,
S. Selva, S. Clayden
30New Brunswick, CanadaRockville (The Bluffs)S. Selva, S. Clayden
31New Brunswick, CanadaCrooked Creek Protected AreaS. Clayden
32New Brunswick, CanadaMiller LakeS. Clayden
33New Brunswick, CanadaNalaisk MountainS. Clayden
34New Brunswick, CanadaHalf Moon Lake, Northumberland Co.S. Clayden
35New Brunswick, CanadaGover Mountain Protected AreaS. Clayden
36New Brunswick, CanadaCranberry Lake Protected AreaS. Selva, S. Clayden
37New Brunswick, CanadaBen Lomond, Saint JohnS. Clayden
38New Brunswick, CanadaFundy National Park, numerous localitiesS. Gowan, S. Selva,
S. Clayden
39Nova Scotia, CanadaAbrahamsLakeS. Selva
40Nova Scotia, CanadaCape Breton Highlands NPS. Selva, S. Clayden
41Nova Scotia, CanadaFrench River Wilderness AreaS. Selva
42Nova Scotia, CanadaPanuke Lake Nature Reserve, Panuke LakeS. Selva
43Nova Scotia, CanadaNorth River Wilderness AreaS. Selva
44Nova Scotia, CanadaSugarloaf Mountain Wilderness AreaS. Selva
45Nova Scotia, CanadaMargaree River Wilderness AreaS. Selva
46Nova Scotia, CanadaEconomy River Wilderness Area, Economy FallsTuckerman Workshop 2004
47Nova Scotia, CanadaEconomy River Wilderness Area, Simpson LakeTuckerman Workshop 2004
48Nova Scotia, CanadaCape Chignecto Provincial ParkS. Clayden, Tuckerman Workshop 2004
49Nova Scotia, CanadaFive Islands Provincial ParkTuckerman Workshop 2004
50Nova Scotia, CanadaPortapique River Wilderness AreaTuckerman Workshop 2004
51Nova Scotia, CanadaKejimkujik National ParkTuckerman Workshop 1999
52Nova Scotia, CanadaBlomidon Provincial ParkS. Clayden, S. Selva
53Nova Scotia, CanadaQuinan LakeS. Selva
    
54Prince Edward Island, CanadaMunicipality of O’Leary, Wood WoodlotS. Selva
55Prince Edward Island, CanadaMunicipality of Souris, Townshend WoodlotS. Selva
56Prince Edward Island, CanadaMunicipality of Bonshaw, Loo WoodlotS. Selva
57Prince Edward Island, CanadaMunicipality of Eldon, Pinette HemlocksS. Selva
58Prince Edward Island, CanadaMunicipality of Lewes, MacLean WoodlotS. Selva
59Prince Edward Island, CanadaSt. Chrysostome Cedar Natural AreaS. Selva
60Quebec, CanadaZEC Louise GosfordS. Clayden
61Quebec, CanadaParc du Mont-MéganticS. Clayden
62Quebec, CanadaLaurentian Mountains North of Quebec City, localities near Lac Beauport and in Forêt MontmorencyI. Brodo, ABLS excursion 1997
63Ontario, Canadaseveral localities in Ottawa region including old-growth Thuja and Fraxinus stands, Lanark and Ottawa-Carleton CountiesI. Brodo, S. Selva, P.Y. Wong

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