Recovery Strategy for the Vole Ears Lichen (Erioderma mollissimum) in Canada - 2014
Species at Risk Act
Recovery Strategy Series
Vole Ears Lichen
Table of Contents
- Document Information
- Executive Summary
- Recovery Feasibility Summary
- 1. COSEWIC Species Assessment Information
- 2. Species Status Information
- 3. Species Information
- 4. Threats
- 5. Population and Distribution Objectives
- 6. Broad Strategies and General Approaches to Meet Objectives
- 7. Critical Habitat
- 8. Measuring Progress
- 9. Statement on Action Plans
- 10. References
- Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species
- Appendix B: Knowledge Gaps to Recovery
- Appendix C: Provincial Definitions of a Wetland
Recovery Strategy for the Vole Ears Lichen (Erioderma mollissimum) in Canada – 2014
Environment Canada. 2014. Recovery Strategy for the Vole Ears Lichen (Erioderma mollissimum) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa. v + 31 pp.
For copies of the recovery strategy, or for additional information on species at risk, including the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) Status Reports, residence descriptions, action plans, and other related recovery documents, please visit the Species at Risk (SAR) Public Registry.
Cover illustration: Vole Ears Lichen -- Frances Anderson
Également disponible en français sous le titre « Programme de rétablissement de l'érioderme mou (Erioderma mollissimum) au Canada »
© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2014. All rights reserved.
Catalogue no. En3-4/192-2015E-PDF
Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source.
The federal, provincial, and territorial government signatories under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996) agreed to establish complementary legislation and programs that provide for effective protection of species at risk throughout Canada. Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent ministers are responsible for the preparation of recovery strategies for listed Extirpated, Endangered, and Threatened species and are required to report on progress within five years.
The Minister of the Environment is the competent minister for the recovery of the Vole Ears Lichen and has prepared this strategy, as per section 37 of SARA. It has been prepared in cooperation with the Provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Nova Scotia and others as per section 39(1) of SARA.
Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Environment Canada, or any other jurisdiction alone. All Canadians are invited to join in supporting and implementing this strategy for the benefit of the Vole Ears Lichen and Canadian society as a whole.
This recovery strategy will be followed by one or more action plans that will provide information on recovery measures to be taken by Environment Canada and other jurisdictions and/or organizations involved in the conservation of the species. Implementation of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities, and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations.
This recovery strategy was prepared by Julie McKnight (Environment Canada – Canadian Wildlife Service) and Rob Cameron (Nova Scotia – Environment) with extensive input from Mark Elderkin (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources), Maureen Toner (New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources), Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Environment and Conservation, and the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources Lichen Working Group. The efforts and contributions of the Nova Scotia Cyanolichen Recovery Team are gratefully acknowledged.
Vole Ears Lichen is a large (up to 12 cm broad), leafy lichen with a felty, grey-brown upper surface that turns grey-green when moistened.
As of January 2012, Vole Ears Lichen was known from two populations at 29 sites along the Atlantic Coast of Nova Scotia comprised of 153 adult thalli and from one population at six sites on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador that had 26 adult thalli. The last report of Vole Ears Lichen in New Brunswick was from 1980. The species is listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).
One of the most important requirements for cyanolichens is the need for a clean environment including pollutant-free air and precipitation that is free of acidifying contaminants. Acid precipitation may negatively impact the colonisation and survival of Vole Ears Lichen in areas that receive significant and continued acid deposition. In addition to air-borne pollutants, Vole Ears Lichen is threatened by logging and wood harvesting, problematic native and invasive non-native species, climate and natural disasters, roads, and housing and urban areas.
The recovery of the Vole Ears Lichen is considered feasible; however, there are several unknown factors associated with its potential for recovery. Despite these unknowns and in keeping with the precautionary principle, this recovery strategy has been prepared as per section 41(1) of SARA. The population and distribution objectives are to ensure that the species’ known range (2012) and the health and stability of the three known populations (2012) are not impacted by biological resource use (of the species’ host tree), transportation and service corridors, residential and commercial development, or invasive non-native species. The broad strategies to be taken to address the threats to the survival and recovery of Vole Ears Lichen are presented in the section on Strategic Direction for Recovery (Section 6.2).
Critical habitat for Vole Ears Lichen is partially identified in this document based on the best available data. Critical habitat for Vole Ears Lichen is located entirely on non-federal land. As more information becomes available, additional critical habitat may be identified.
One or more action plan for Vole Ears Lichen will be completed within three years of the final version of this recovery strategy being posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry.
Recovery Feasibility Summary
Based on the following four criteria outlined in the draft SARA Policies (Government of Canada 2009), the recovery of Vole Ears Lichen is considered feasible; however, there are unknown factors associated with its potential for recovery. Despite these unknowns and in keeping with the precautionary principle, this recovery strategy has been prepared as per section 41(1) of SARA. This recovery strategy addresses the unknowns surrounding the feasibility of recovery.
- 1. Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance.
- Yes. In North America, Vole Ears Lichen is known to occur in the Great Smoky Mountains (Tennessee and North Carolina), and in foggy, coastal areas of Atlantic Canada.Vegetative reproduction is either through fragmentation or specialized structures called soredia. However, lichen soredia have a limited dispersal capability; dispersal is likely not more than hundreds of meters and fragmentation provides dispersal, but only on the same host tree as the parent. Unaided immigration is thus very unlikely.
- 2. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration.
- Unknown. It is unknown whether sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species, or could be made available through habitat management or restoration. Logging and wood harvesting and air-borne pollutants are the primary threats to Vole Ears Lichen habitat. Although habitat still exists in the form of mature/over-mature forests, air-borne pollutants impact this habitat by reducing a host tree’s bark buffering capacity and increasing its acidity (Farmer et al 1991).
Beneficial forest management practices that protect lichens have emerged and have received some support from the industry in recovery work on a similar species, the Boreal Felt Lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum). These may lead to practical recommendations for beneficial management practices in the vicinity of Vole Ears Lichen habitat and unoccupied potential sites.
- 3. The primary threats to the species or its habitat (including threats outside Canada) can be avoided or mitigated.
- Unknown. Logging and wood harvesting and air-borne pollutants are the primary threats to Vole Ears Lichen and its habitat.
Cyanolichens are extremely sensitive to air-borne pollutants and acid precipitation (Richardson and Cameron 2004) due to their reliance on air-borne nutrients and water, as well as lack of protective structures (Richardson and Cameron 2004). Sulphur dioxide (SO2) dissolved in precipitation, water films, or within moist lichen thalli is highly toxic to cyanolichens and is most toxic under acidic conditions. Vole Ears Lichen may benefit from pollution prevention campaigns and industrial technologies that reduce emissions. However, despite such initiatives, air quality problems are anticipated to continue to be problem for the next 20 to 50 years and Environment Canada (2003) reports that growth in air pollution sources has the potential to outpace any gains made in recent years. At present, many areas in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and, to a lesser extent, Newfoundland and Labrador, receive acid deposition in excess of critical loads (i.e., the amount of acid deposition that a habitat can tolerate without being significantly harmed (COSEWIC 2009)). Future industrial developments may further negatively impact Vole Ears Lichen and its habitat.
Formal and informal partnerships with industry, scientists, municipal governments, federal/provincial governments, conservation organizations, land owners, and the public may help achieve the long-term conservation and recovery of the Vole Ears Lichen.
International agreements, national commitments, and legislation may all contribute to sustainable forestry practices and the conservation of Vole Ears Lichen through threat reduction/mitigation. In some areas, the forestry industry has taken an interest in the protection of a similar endangered lichen, the Atlantic population of Boreal Felt Lichen, and their input may lead to practical recommendations for beneficial management practices in the vicinity of Vole Ears Lichen habitat and unoccupied potential sites.
- 4. Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe.
- Yes. Some success has been achieved in transplanting Boreal Felt Lichen, Boreal population in Newfoundland and Labrador (The Gossan 2010). It is reasonable to assume that this recovery technique may be a viable option for Vole Ears Lichen, should it be required.
1. COSEWICFootnote* Species Assessment Information
- Date of Assessment:
- November 2009
- Common Name (population):
- Lichen, Vole Ears
- Scientific Name:
- Erioderma mollissimum
- COSEWIC Status:
- Reason for Designation:
- This large foliose lichen is known in Canada only from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the island of Newfoundland, where it inhabits cool, humid and coastal conifer forests dominated by Balsam Fir. Although there are 24 known sites for the lichen in these regions, few individuals (133 thalli) are known. While recent surveys have increased the number of known locations, the lichen has been extirpated from 11 sites in the last 30 years. This lichen is a sensitive indicator of air pollution and acid precipitation, which are its main threats. Other threats include forest harvest and browsing by moose.
- Canadian Occurrence:
- NB, NS, NL
- COSEWIC Status History:
- Designated Endangered in November 2009
- Footnote 1
COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada)
2. Species Status Information
|National (N) Rank||Subnational (S) Rank||COSEWIC Status||SARA Status|
|G4 apparently secure||N1N2|
critically imperiled/ imperiled
critically imperiled/ imperiled
3. Species Information
3.1 Species Description
Vole Ears Lichen is a large leafy lichen with a felty, grey-brown upper surface that turns grey-green when moistened. The thallus is up to 12 cm broad and is comprised of radiating, loosely attached lobes up to 1 cm in width. The lower surface lacks an outer protective layer, and except near the pale, bare margins is densely hairy and light-brown. Granular, bluish vegetative reproductive structures are produced along the lobe margins and may also form in tiny patches on the upper surface of older lobes. Vole Ears Lichen can sometimes be found growing in clusters of individuals that result from fragmentation or regeneration close to the parent thallus.
The photosynthetic component of this lichen has been identified as Scytonema, a cyanobacterium that is considered rare in lichens occurring north of subtropical regions. Nevertheless, Scytonema is also found in other lichens, including Coccocarpia palmicola and Lichinodium sirosiphoideum,that are often found in the same habitats as Vole Ears Lichen.
3.2 Populations and Distribution
Vole Ears Lichen has a highly disjunct global range and occurs mostly in tropical and subtropical cloud forests. It has been recorded in Central and South America, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, and Brazil (Jørgensen and Arvidsson 2001). It occurs more rarely on the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean, in Portugal, Spain, the Azores, and the Canary Islands and is known to occur in the mountains of Kenya in East Africa. In North America, it has been recorded in the Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina, and the coastal region of Atlantic Canada.
Evidence suggests a possible decline in the Canadian population, particularly in Nova Scotia where at least 80% of sites documented in the 1980s no longer support the lichen. As of January 2012, Vole Ears Lichen was known from two populations at 29 sites along the Atlantic Coast of Nova Scotia totaling 153 adults and 23 juveniles. In 2012, Vole Ears Lichen was confirmed to exist on 10 trees at six sites on the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador totalling 26 adults and 30 juveniles. The last report of Vole Ears Lichen in New Brunswick was from 1980 and has not been relocated at that site despite recent searches; however, it may still occur in the province in small numbers.
A GIS-based predicted distribution model was developed for Vole Ears Lichen in Eastern Canada and results suggest that the population size and distribution of Vole Ears Lichen may be larger than is currently known (COSEWIC 2009).
|Population Name||Site||Year of discovery||Most recent survey||Number of phorophytes||Number of Juvenile thalli||Number of Adult thalli|
|Avalon (NL)||Halls Gullies 1||2007||2012||1||2||1|
|Avalon (NL)||Halls Gullies 2||2007||2012||1||21||13|
|Avalon (NL)||Halls Gullies 3||2007||2012||4||4||6|
|Avalon (NL)||Halls Gullies 4||2008||2012||1||1||1|
|Avalon (NL)||Halls Gullies 5||2008||2012||1||0||1|
|Avalon (NL)||South East Placentia||2007||2012||2||2||4|
|South Shore (NS)||Blandford||2006||2011||n.d.||0||5|
|South Shore (NS)||Bon Mature Lake||2008||2008||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Canada Hill / MacKenzies BarrenFootnote1||2008||2011||> 9||0||29|
|South Shore (NS)||Clyde River Road||2008||2008||n.d.||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Clyde River Road||2008||2008||n.d.||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Duck Hole||2010||2010||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Four Mile Brook||2007||2007||n.d.||0||6|
|South Shore (NS)||Fresh Water Brook||2011||2011||2||0||2|
|South Shore (NS)||Haley Lake||1981||2008||n.d.||0||7|
|South Shore (NS)||Johnstons Pond||2011||2011||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Jones Harbour||2008||2008||n.d.||0||2|
|South Shore (NS)||Jordan River||2011||2011||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Lake John RoadFootnote2||2007||2007||n.d.||2||22|
|South Shore (NS)||Martin Brook||2008||2008||n.d.||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Misery Lake||2011||2011||2||0||2|
|South Shore (NS)||Misery Lake Brook||2010||2010||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Oakhill||2011||2011||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Port L’Hebert||2008||2008||n.d.||1||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Pumpkinvine Brook||2010||2010||1||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Robarts Pond||2008||2008||n.d.||0||1|
|South Shore (NS)||Robs Lake||2009||2009||4||0||4|
|South Shore (NS)||Thomas Raddall, Provincial Park||1980||2008||n.d.||11||32|
|South Shore (NS)||Tidney||2010||2010||1||0||1|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Bear Lake||2006||2007||n.d.||0||2|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Burnt Hill Lake Brook||2010||2010||2||0||2|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Dooks Pond||2005||2007||n.d.||0||4|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Fuller Lake||2006||2007||n.d.||8||8|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Otter Pond||2006||2007||n.d.||1||6|
|Eastern Shore (NS)||Webber Lake||2007||2007||n.d.||0||7|
- Footnote 1
This site corresponds to occurrences Lake John Road1 & Lake John Road 2 as stated in the 2010 COSEWIC status report.
- Footnote 2
This site corresponds to occurrences Canada Hill 1 & Canada Hill 2 as stated in the 2010 COSEWIC status report, and has expanded following the discovery of new Vole Ears thalli.
3.3 Needs of the Vole Ears Lichen
In Atlantic Canada, the species occurs within 30 km of the coast at elevations less than 200 m where it experiences warm winters and cool summers. These highly humid coastal forests receive large amounts of moisture in the form of fog and rain, which is often in excess of 1400 mm annually (COSEWIC 2009, Davis and Browne 1996). Vole Ears Lichen is often found in, or very near to, wetlands. A wetland is land that is either periodically or permanently saturated with water and sustains aquatic processes (interpreted from NS Wetland Conservation Policy 2011; refer to Appendix C for provincial definitions).
In the Boreal Forest Region in Newfoundland, Vole Ears Lichen is found in mature to overmature coniferous forest patches dominated by Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) of even ages with characteristically varying tree diameters. These patches occur on flat to gently sloping, imperfectly- to poorly-drained sites in close proximity to wetlands as part of a fragmented landscape which includes coniferous stands in different age classes. Preliminary observations of Vole Ears Lichen in Newfoundland, suggest that it may be found on particularly slow growing trees, however the significance of these observations with respect to its habitat requirements is unknown. In the Acadian Forest Region in Nova Scotia, Vole Ears Lichen is most often found in poorly drained depressions with mature coniferous or mixed forests dominated by Balsam Fir and/or Red Maple (Acer rubrum) and/or Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis), where Sphagnum species cover the ground. In New Brunswick, one thallus was found on a moss–covered rock.
One of the most important habitat requirements for cyanolichens is the need for a clean environment including pollutant-free air and precipitation that is free of acidifying contaminants. Cyanolichens are particularly sensitive to acid rain, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (Gilbert 1986, Hallingback 1989, Hawksworth and Rose 1970, Sigal and Johnston 1986). Maass and Yetman (2002) partially attribute the decline in Boreal Felt Lichen (Erioderma pedicellatum) in Atlantic Canada to acid rain and air-borne pollutants.
4.1 Threat Assessment
|General Threat||Sub General Threat||Level of ConcernFootnote1||Extent||Occurrence||Frequency||SeverityFootnote2||Causal CertaintyFootnote3|
|Biological Resource Use||Logging and wood harvesting||High||Widespread||Current & Anticipated||Recurrent||High||High|
|Pollution||Air-borne pollutants||Medium - High||Widespread||Current & Anticipated||Continuous||Medium - High||High|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species||Problematic native and invasive non-native species (grazing and herbivory)||Medium||Localized||Current & anticipated||Continuous / Seasonal||Medium||Medium|
|Climate and Natural Disasters||Habitat shifting and altering||Medium||Widespread||Current & Anticipated||Recurrent||Unknown||Medium|
|Climate and Natural Disasters||Storms (e.g., hurricanes)||Low||Widespread||Current & Anticipated||Recurrent||Unknown||Low|
|Transportation and Service Corridors||Roads||Low||Widespread||Current & Anticipated||One-time||Moderate||Low|
|Residential and Commercial Development||Housing and urban areas (urban areas/ vacation homes)||Low||Unknown||Anticipated||One-time||High||Low|
- Footnote 1
Level of Concern signifies that managing the threat is of (high, medium or low) concern for the recovery of the species, consistent with the population and distribution objectives. This criterion considers the assessment of all the information in the table.
- Footnote 2
Extent – Defined as widespread, localized or unknown across the species range.
- Footnote 3
Occurrence is defined as historic (contributed to decline but no longer affecting the species), current (affecting the species now), imminent (is expected to affect the species very soon), anticipated (may affect the species in the future), or unknown.
4.2 Description of Threats
Logging and wood harvesting
Besides acid precipitation, forestry activities are considered the other major threat to the species. Forestry practices such as clear cutting or harvesting on a large scale may cause fragmentation and would alter biodiversity and age class structure of potential Vole Ears Lichen habitat. Scheduling of forest harvesting affects habitat availability and, where forest succession is known, can be used to provide mid-term and long-term habitat inputs for modelling exercises. The effect of forest fragmentation on epiphytic lichens has been the subject of much work (Esseen and Renhorn 1998, Rheault et al. 2003, Pykälä 2004, Richardson and Cameron 2004). When lichens are suddenly at the edge of a forest or in a fragmented forest, there is a reduction in dispersal ability and opportunity to recolonize in cutover areas (Rheault et al. 2003). Large-scale logging can increase wind and drying effects (Hunter 1990) and greatly reduce the ability of a forest stand to buffer against times of low humidity while at particular seral stages (Maass and Yetman 2002).
Cyanolichens are extremely sensitive to air-borne pollutants and acid precipitation due to their reliance on air-borne nutrients and water, as well as their lack of protective structures (Richardson and Cameron 2004). Sulphur dioxide (SO2) dissolved in precipitation, water films, or within moist lichen thalli is highly toxic to cyanolichens and is most toxic under acidic conditions. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted during the high temperature burning of coal or oil remain in the atmosphere for relatively long periods of time before being washed out by rain and forming acid rain. Acid rain is a combination of sulphuric acid and nitric acid formed from the nitrogen oxides. It is the hydrogen ion component of acid rain that is toxic; it affects cell membranes, leaches metals such as calcium from the lichen, and acidifies the substrata of the host (Richardson 2008). Continued exposure to acid precipitation eventually results in the buffering capacity of the substratum being exceeded so that it becomes too acid for cyanolichens, especially for very young thalli to thrive (Nieboer et al. 1984).
Vole Ears Lichen may benefit from pollution prevention campaigns and industrial technologies that reduce emissions. However, despite such initiatives, air quality problems are anticipated to continue for the next 20 to 50 years and Environment Canada (2003) reports that growth in air-borne pollution sources has the potential to outpace any gains made in recent years. At present, many areas in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and, to a lesser extent, Newfoundland and Labrador, receive acid deposition in excess of critical loads (i.e., the amount of acid deposition that a habitat can tolerate without being significantly harmed (COSEWIC 2009)). Future industrial developments may further negatively impact the habitat for Vole Ears Lichen.
Problematic native and invasive non-native species
Since the arrival of Europeans, there have been both deliberate and accidental introductions of animal species. The following species are implicated in successional changes to forest composition in Newfoundland and were all introduced: Red-backed Voles (Clethrionomys gapperi), Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) and Moose (Alces alces) (McLaren et al. 2009, McLaren et al. 2004). Moose were introduced to the island of Newfoundland in 1878 and 1904 and the population quickly expanded; densities are currently much higher than elsewhere in North America. Balsam Fir, the only known substrate for Vole Ears Lichen in Newfoundland, is browsed by Moose resulting in the understocking of Balsam Fir, various hardwood and other native vegetation and a relatively higher spruce proportion, thus potentially limiting the available habitat for the lichen.
Evidence of gastropod grazing on Vole Ears Lichen was recorded in NS (Cameron 2009). Three species of gastropods were found feeding on cyanolichens in Nova Scotia (Cameron 2009): Pallifera dorsalis, a small native gastropod; and Arion subfuscus and Deroceras reticulatum, larger aggressive species introduced from Europe (Davis 1992). Non-native gastropods may also pose a problem for Vole Ears Lichen in Newfoundland (Moss and Hermanutz 2010). Surveys in Newfoundland have noted occurrences of Vole Ears Lichen being lightly grazed, but the taxa / species responsible for the grazing is unknown. Mollusc grazing can play an important part in shaping the epiphytic vegetation of deciduous forests and juvenile thalli seem to be at particular risk (Asplund and Gauslaa 2008).
Habitat shifting and altering and Storms
Lichens such as the Vole Ears Lichen may be particularly sensitive to climate change. Region-wide birch dieback in Eastern Canada and in the adjacent parts of the United States has been attributed to extreme climactic fluctuations (Auclair 1987, Auclair et al. 1992 and the review by Braathe 1995). Modelling by Bourque et al. (2010) suggests that Balsam fir may retreat to the coolest portions of Nova Scotia and the area occupied by balsam fir will decline by over 90% by 2100 as a result of a changing climate. This would severely limit the available habitat for Vole Ears Lichen as balsam fir is one of only three substratum currently used by the lichenin Nova Scotia. Research is needed in Newfoundland to understand how climate change may impact fir distribution in that province (COSEWIC).
Preliminary analyses along the Atlantic coast suggest a significant decline in fog frequency in Nova Scotia and the Avalon Peninsula of southeastern Newfoundland and Labrador over the past few decades (Beauchamp et al. 1998, Muraca et al. 2001). Vole Ears Lichen, like several other cyanolichens that mainly occur in coastal fog forests, is very drought–sensitive, and could be negatively impacted if a decline in fog occurs.
Based on field observations, the similar Boreal Felt Lichen cannot endure the desiccation that accompanies extreme weather events such as droughts and hurricanes (Maass and Yetman 2002). A severe storm in Guysborough County, Nova Scotia, created a windfall that destroyed one of the boreal felt lichen populations discovered in the 1980s (Maass and Yetman 2002).
Roads and Housing and urban areas
The development of land for activities such as industry, residences, and agriculture creates disturbance, landscape alterations, and affects micro-climates of nearby forests. New road development may alter the landscape hydrology (Cameron 2006) and also provide access to remote areas that may foster the expansion of cottage country (Maass and Yetman 2002).
5. Population and Distribution Objectives
The objectives of this strategy are to ensure that the species’ known range (2012) and the health and stability of the three known populations (2012) are not impacted by biological resource use (of the species’ host tree), transportation and service corridors, residential and commercial development, or invasive non-native species.
As of January 2012, three populations of Vole Ears Lichen were known from the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador (26 adult thalli), the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia (29 adult thalli), and the South Shore of Nova Scotia (124 adult thalli).
A GIS-based predicted distribution model was developed for Vole Ears Lichen in Eastern Canada and results from this model suggest that the population size and distribution of Vole Ears Lichen may be larger than is currently known.
6. Broad Strategies and General Approaches to Meet Objectives
6.1 Actions Already Completed or Currently Underway
In Newfoundland and Labrador, lichen inventories, surveys, pre-harvest forest surveys and opportunistic searching have been ongoing since 1996 by contract staff, Department of Environment and Conservation (Parks and Natural Areas Division and Wildlife Division), Department of Natural Resources, Miawpukek First Nation, and, where required, for proponents of proposals registered in the Environmental Assessments process. Vole Ears Lichen monitoring has been underway since 2010. Some Boreal Felt Lichen sites on the Avalon Peninsula have been re-visited to ensure that Vole Ears Lichen were not misidentified as Boreal Felt Lichen and more sites are slated to be re-visited. As well, numerous lichen photos initially identified as Boreal Felt Lichen were re-examined to locate any potentially misidentified Vole Ears Lichen. The provincial Forestry and Agrifoods Agency has deferred harvest in existing Vole Ears Lichen sites via the Forest Management Planning Process and formal protection for areas of conservation interest is currently being pursued. In Nova Scotia, lichen inventories, surveys, pre-harvest forest surveys, and opportunistic searching have been ongoing since 2003. Informal outreach has been underway since 2006.
There are other recovery and guidance documents pertaining to cyanolichens in Atlantic Canada that propose additional activities and measures that may be pertinent for the conservation of Vole Ears Lichen: The Recovery Strategy for Boreal Felt Lichen, Atlantic population (Environment Canada 2007), The Management Plan for the Blue Felt Lichen [DRAFT] (Environment Canada, in prep), The Management Plan for the Boreal Felt Lichen, Boreal population (Environment Canada 2010), A Five Year Management Plan for the Boreal Felt Lichen in Newfoundland and Labrador (Keeping and Hanel 2006), and Endangered Boreal Felt Lichen Special Management Practices (Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources 2012).
6.2 Strategic Direction for Recovery
|Threats or concerns addressed||Priority||Broad Strategy to Recovery||General Description of Research and Management Approaches|
|All||High||Law and policy|
|All||Medium - High||Education and awareness, stewardship, and partnerships|
|Logging and wood harvesting Storms|
Problematic native and non-native species
Housing and urban areas
|Medium||Habitat and species protection and management|
|Monitoring and research|
6.3 Narrative to Support the Recovery Planning Table
Law and policy
Vole Ears Lichen will benefit from reductions in air-borne pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It is not feasible to initiate a massive campaign to reduce local and transboundary sources of pollution specifically for the benefit of lichens. Instead, partnerships should be strengthened with government departments to encourage compliance with the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and to continue implementing the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000, the Nova Scotia Energy Strategy, the Nova Scotia Climate Change Action Plan, the Newfoundland and Labrador Climate Change Action Plan, and the New Brunswick Climate Change Action Plan.
Managing the effects of herbivory by voles, squirrels, snowshoe hare, and moose on forests is an ongoing challenge in Newfoundland and Labrador. Similar to the plans to mitigate air pollution and greenhouse gasses by supporting partnerships and implementing existing programs, the way forward for this issue will be to support existing research and management programs.
Education and awareness, stewardship, and partnerships
Efforts to communicate with landowners, resource users, developers, land managers, and other stakeholders to promote stewardship and private land conservation are an important part of protecting habitat. It will be necessary to determine beneficial practices for forest management in the vicinity of Vole Ears Lichen sites, in unoccupied potential sites adjacent to critical habitat, and to maintain Balsam Fir across the landscape in Newfoundland and mixed forests of Balsam Fir and/or Red Maple and/or Yellow Birch and associated ground Sphagnum species in Nova Scotia. The experience and knowledge of stakeholders will be important in making management decisions on private and public lands. Protected areas, as well as private lands conserved through private land conservation mechanisms also have a role to play in the conservation of lichens and should be pursued where feasible.
Cyanolichens can be difficult to identify and often take considerable effort to study and learn, but the right educational materials and delivery may pique the interest of industry, foresters, land managers, students, and naturalists. Identification workshops and seminars for various cyanolichens species will provide a foundation for initial steps towards recovery.
Habitat and species protection and management
Habitat protection is required for the conservation and recovery of this lichen and to that end, occupied habitat should be secured where possible. Efforts to communicate with landowners and promote stewardship may prove as important as legislation for the recovery of the species’ (see previous section).
Gastropods will ascend trees to graze lichens. The climbing of trees can be prevented by a variety of devices such as collars, tapes and traps. These devices can be applied to phorophytes to determine the most effective method to prevent gastropod access to Vole Ears Lichen.
Researching a successful protocol for transplanting cyanolichens to nearby host trees when a parent tree is threatened by uncontrollable factors (e.g., storms, blow-downs) may be necessary for the maintenance of this lichen at some sites. Transplantation may also provide a means for rescuing rare populations or maintaining the species’ range, but would only be considered in exceptional circumstances. Some success has been achieved in transplanting Boreal Felt Lichen, Boreal population in Newfoundland and Labrador (The Gossan 2010).
Monitoring and research
Monitoring is necessary to evaluate the success of recovery efforts. Monitoring will assess the abundance, overall condition of the thalli, habitat characteristics, and apparent threats. Monitoring the health and succession of individual thalli and colonies as well as the long-term habitat conditions will also address some research questions.
Since the GIS predicted distribution model suggested that other Vole Ears Lichen locations may exist, continued lichen surveys / inventories are necessary to gain accurate distribution information for the species. Where appropriate, the model results can be used to prioritize new survey locations.
It is important to identify the lichen’s sensitivity to specific types and levels of pollutants and determine under what conditions (timing, duration, life stage of exposure, etc.) these pose the greatest threat. Through identification of local point sources of air pollution and atmospheric conditions, the impact of these point sources on the location and survival of cyanolichens can be assessed. Permanent lichen pollution sampling plots managed by Nova Scotia Environment may provide some insights into the impact of air quality on the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens.
Information regarding air-borne pollutants, acid deposition, and meteorological events is available through federal and provincial environment departments and should be assembled and interpreted as it relates to the recovery of cyanolichens. Other threats, such as forestry activity and gastropod grazing, will be researched and monitored directly.
Microhabitat parameters such as humidity, forest composition, forest age structure, and indicator species should be monitored at occupied sites to better define the conditions the species requires.
Other knowledge gaps to recovery that should be addressed, such as life cycle characteristics and dispersal distance, are identified in Appendix B.
7. Critical Habitat
7.1 Identification of the Species' Critical Habitat
Critical habitat is identified in this document to the extent possible given the best available information. However, at this time, identification is considered to be partial. Distribution-prediction modeling provided convincing evidence that the known habitat preferences of Vole Ears Lichen exist in locations other than currently confirmed sites, meaning that more sites with Vole Ears Lichen in Atlantic Canada will likely be found. Ecological requisites and physical attributes of critical habitat in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador are not fully understood at this time and require further study.
Vole Ears Lichen habitat characteristics
The existing Vole Ears Lichen sites share the following habitat characteristics:
In northeastern North America, Vole Ears Lichen is found within 30 km of the coast where winters are warm (mean temperature −4.5 °C) and summers are cool (mean temperature of 16.4 °C). Over 80 % of the precipitation in these sites falls as rain and fog frequency is high. Vole Ears Lichen is limited to elevations of less than 200 m in Atlantic Canada and occurs at sites with high precipitation, often exceeding 1400 mm (COSEWIC 2009, Davis and Browne 1996).
All trees on which Vole Ears Lichen has been found have been mature or old. Stand tree ages average 65 years in Nova Scotia and 73 years in Newfoundland and Labrador. Dead trees are found at all occurrences and make up as much as 50% of the forest composition in several stands.
Cinnamon Fern (Osmunda cinnamomea) dominates the herb layer at all occurrences and Sphagnum species are present at all occurrences with a total ground cover of 70% or more at each location. Other species of moss are present in smaller amounts (5 to 15% of the ground cover). In Newfoundland, Vole Ears Lichen is frequently found growing alongside or on liverworts, particularly Frullania species and Bryophyte ground cover is high at all sites (dominated by Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum, Rhytidiadelphus, Ptilium, and Bazzania).
The Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Vole Ears Lichen habitats are highly humid coastal forests. Host trees are almost always located in, or within 80 m of, a wetland or peatland (COSEWIC 2009). In other respects the habitats are different. In Newfoundland, Vole Ears Lichen is found in mature to overmature coniferous forest patches dominated by Balsam Fir of even ages with characteristically varying tree diameters. These patches occur on flat to gently sloping, imperfectly- to poorly-drained sites in close proximity to wetlands as part of a fragmented landscape which include coniferous stands in different age classes. In Nova Scotia, Vole Ears Lichen habitat is typically in poorly drained depressions with mature coniferous or mixed forests dominated by Balsam Fir and/or Red Maple.
Vole Ears Lichen is found on a variety of substrata. In Newfoundland and Labrador it has been found only on Balsam Fir, while in Nova Scotia it occurs on Balsam Fir as well as Red Maple and Yellow Birch. In New Brunswick one historical record was from a moss–covered rock.
One of the most important habitat requirements for cyanolichens is the presence of precipitation free of acidifying contaminants. Nutrient enrichment from the upper branches of nearby hardwoods may counter the low buffering capacity of coniferous bark in areas with highly acidic precipitation, thus allowing the lichen to survive (Richardson and Cameron 2004). As a result, there may be a critical threshold for the proportion of Red Maple needed for an area to support Vole Ears Lichen in Nova Scotia. This requires further study.
Critical habitat description
Critical habitat sites are identified in Table 5. At each site, critical habitat for Vole Ears Lichen is identified as the substrata (at present only known from trees), the wetland (which is defined as land that either periodically or permanently has a water table at, near, or above the land’s surface and includes marsh, swamp, fen, bogs, and other shallow open water areas) in which the substrata occurs, or is adjacent to, and a critical function zone. The critical function zone is believed to be necessary to maintain microhabitat characteristics, especially moisture attributes, required for the survival of the lichen and to allow for colonization. The critical function zone is identified as 100 m around the lichen and its substratum and an area around the wetland in which it occurs, or is adjacent to, dependent on wetland size as follows: for wetlands smaller than 100 m2, a critical function zone of 100 m radius surrounding the wetland is identified and for wetlands greater than 100 m2, a critical function zone of 50 m surrounding the wetland is identified. More detailed information on the location of critical habitat to support protection of the species and its habitat may be requested, on a need-to-know basis, by contacting Environment Canada’s Recovery Planning section at: RecoveryPlanning_Pl@ec.gc.ca.
Critical habitat is not identified in New Brunswick at this time. If surveys reveal the presence of lichens in the province, critical habitat for the species will be revised.
|Population Name||Grid Number||Site Name||EastingFootnote1||NorthingFootnote1||Number of CH Site Centroids within Grid||CH Site Area (ha)Footnote2 within Grid||Land TenureFootnote3|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22BT83_15||South East Placentia||281000||5235000||0||1||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22BT83_16||South East Placentia||281000||5236000||1||3||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_37||Halls Gullies 4||313000||5247000||1||2||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_47||Halls Gullies 4||314000||5247000||0||1||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_48||Halls Gullies 1||314000||5248000||0||3||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_58||Halls Gullies 1|
Halls Gullies 2
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_59||Halls Gullies 3|
Halls Gullies 5
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT15_50||Halls Gullies 3||315000||5250000||1||19||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT15_60||Halls Gullies 3||316000||5250000||0||20||Non federal|
|Avalon Peninsula (NL)||22CT14_68||Halls Gullies 2||316000||5248000||0||1||Non federal|
|20KP95_31||Clyde River Road1||293000||4851000||0||2||Non federal|
|20KP95_32||Clyde River Road1||293000||4852000||0||0.4||Non federal|
|20KP95_40||Clyde River Road2||294000||4850000||0||2||Non federal|
|20KP95_41||Clyde River Road1|
Clyde River Road2
|20KP95_42||Clyde River Road1||294000||4852000||0||2||Non federal|
|20LP16_80||Jordan River||318000||4860000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP24_99||Canada Hill / MacKenzies BarrenFootnote5||329000||4849000||0||6||Non federal|
|20LP25_90||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||329000||4850000||0||18||Non federal|
|20LP25_91||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||329000||4851000||0||7||Non federal|
|20LP25_92||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||329000||4852000||0||1||Non federal|
|20LP25_95||Misery Lake||329000||4855000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP26_00||Lake John RoadFootnote4|
Four Mile Brook
|20LP26_01||Four Mile Brook||320000||4861000||1||34||Non federal|
|20LP26_02||Four Mile Brook||320000||4862000||0||5||Non federal|
|20LP26_10||Four Mile Brook||321000||4860000||0||5||Non federal|
|20LP26_11||Four Mile Brook||321000||4861000||0||9||Non federal|
|20LP27_22||Martin Brook||322000||4872000||0||3||Non federal|
|20LP27_23||Martin Brook||322000||4873000||1||6||Non federal|
|20LP34_09||Canada Hill / MacKenzies BarrenFootnote5||323000||4849000||0||16||Non federal|
|20LP34_17||Robs Lake||331000||4847000||0||3||Non federal|
|20LP34_18||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren|
|20LP34_19||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||331000||4849000||0||40||Non federal|
|20LP35_00||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||330000||4850000||1||87||Non federal|
|20LP35_01||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||330000||4851000||0||45||Non federal|
|20LP35_02||Canada Hill / MacKenzies Barren||330000||4852000||0||9||Non federal|
|20LP35_03||Misery Lake Brook||330000||4853000||0||2||Non federal|
|20LP35_13||Misery Lake Brook||331000||4853000||1||24||Non federal|
|20LP35_14||Misery Lake Brook||331000||4854000||0||12||Non federal|
|20LP35_21||Robarts Pond||332000||4851000||1||2||Non federal|
|20LP35_31||Robarts Pond||333000||4851000||0||1||Non federal|
|20LP35_73||Fresh Water Brook||337000||4853000||1||4||Non federal|
|20LP35_88||Pumpkinvine Brook||338000||4858000||0||0.3||Non federal|
|20LP35_89||Pumpkinvine Brook||338000||4859000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP35_90||Jones Harbour||339000||4850000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP35_93||Haley Lake||339000||4853000||1||2||Non federal|
|20LP44_29||Johnstons Pond||342000||4849000||0||60||Non federal|
|20LP44_39||Johnstons Pond||343||4849000||0||15||Non federal|
|20LP45_10||Johnstons Pond||341000||4850000||0||2||Non federal|
|20LP45_20||Johnstons Pond||342000||4850000||1||70||Non federal|
|20LP45_30||Johnstons Pond||343000||4850000||0||12||Non federal|
|20LP45_51||Thomas Randall Provincial Park||345000||4851000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP45_62||Port L’Hebert||346000||4852000||1||3||Non federal|
|20LP45_63||Port L’Hebert||346000||4853000||0||0.1||Non federal|
|20LP48_42||Bon Mature Lake||344000||4882000||1||9||Non federal|
|20LP48_52||Bon Mature Lake||345000||4882000||0||7||Non federal|
|20MQ87_91||Fuller Lake||489000||4971000||1||3||Non federal|
|20MQ96_26||Dooks Pond||492000||4966000||1||5||Non federal|
|20MQ96_93||Webber Lake||499000||4963000||0||2||Non federal|
|20MQ96_94||Webber Lake||499000||4964000||1||20||Non federal|
|20MQ97_00||Otter Pond||490000||4970000||1||3||Non federal|
|20NQ17_45||Bear Lake||514000||4975000||1||3||Non federal|
|20NQ68_58||Burnt Hill Lake Brook||565000||4988000||1||3||Non federal|
|20NQ68_59||Burnt Hill Lake Brook||565000||4989000||0||0.01||Non federal|
- Footnote 1
The listed coordinates represent the southwest corner of the 1 km Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military Grid Reference System square containing critical habitat sites (see http://maps.nrcan.gc.ca/topo101/mil_ref_e.php for more information on the reference system). The coordinates may not fall within critical habitat and are provided as a general location only.
- Footnote 2
The area presented is of the site boundary containing areas of critical habitat and not necessarily the area of critical habitat itself. Refer to Section 7.1 for a description of how critical habitat within these areas is defined.
- Footnote 3
Land Tenure is provided as an approximation of land ownership of the site containing critical habitat and should be used for guidance purposes only. Accurate land tenure will require cross referencing critical habitat boundaries with surveyed land parcel information
- Footnote 4
This site corresponds to occurrences Lake John Road1 and Lake John Road 2 as stated in the 2010 COSEWIC status report.
- Footnote 5
This site corresponds to occurrences Canada Hill 1 and Canada Hill 2 as stated in the 2010 COSEWIC status report, and has expanded following the discovery of new Vole Ears thalli.
7.2 Schedule of Studies to Identify Critical Habitat
|Description of Activity||Rationale||Timeline|
|Determine macro-scale physical environment and functional features that are vital for survival and colonisation.||Understand requirements of species and is necessary to determine whether the current identification of critical habitat includes sufficient habitat at each site to ensure long-term survival and ability to colonise new areas||preliminary results by 2016; further analysis by 2022|
|Determine microclimate requirements that are vital for survival. Determine whether Red Maple component provides critical microclimate requirements in NS.||Understand requirements of species and is necessary to determine whether the current identification of critical habitat includes sufficient habitat at each site to ensure long-term survival;|
Determines whether additional Red Maple outside the critical function zone should be conserved (in NS) to ensure characteristics at the critical habitat sites are maintained (pH).
|Assess the relationship between wetland size and recharge area required to maintain wetland functionality. Determine necessity of critical function zone and area required to maintain critical habitat characteristics.||May lead to refinement of critical habitat. Determines if zone surrounding wetland is necessary to protect the wetland function and mitigate effects of fragmentation. If deemed necessary, refines area of critical function zone.||2017|
|Determine the necessity of protecting suitable unoccupied habitat for connectivity and colonisation.||May lead to refinement of critical habitat. Determines whether the current identification of critical habitat is sufficient at each site to ensure long-term survival and ability to colonise new areas.||preliminary results by 2016; further analysis by 2022|
7.3 Activities Likely to Result in the Destruction of Critical Habitat
Destruction of critical habitat is determined on a case by case basis. Destruction would result if part of the critical habitat were degraded, either permanently or temporarily, such that it would not serve its function when needed by the species. Destruction may result from a single or multiple activities at one point in time or from the cumulative effects of one or more activities over time (Government of Canada 2009). When critical habitat is identified in a recovery strategy, examples of activities that are likely to result in its destruction will be provided. Activities likely to result in destruction of critical habitat include, but are not necessarily limited to the following:
- Activities that remove or damage host trees. Such activities remove the host trees that are essential for the lichen or may alter the suitability of the tree as a host for the lichen.
Examples include tree blazing, clear cutting, logging, and tree harvesting.
- Activities that result in the loss or removal of trees from adjacent areas (including unoccupied trees). The loss of such trees may indirectly lead to a decrease in bark pH in the remaining softwoods; conditions which reduce the survival of cyanolichens (Richardson and Cameron 2004). Such removal may also decrease humidity and increase wind-speeds (and associated wind-throw damage) within critical habitat.
Examples include clear cutting, logging, tree harvesting, road construction, and cottage development in adjacent areas.
At this time, it is not possible to define the extent of the area adjacent to critical habitat that may result in the destruction of critical habitat. Additional guidance will be developed once the schedule of studies for Vole Ears Lichen is complete.
- Activities that alter the hydrology of the wetland adjacent to or hosting the lichen.
Examples include road construction, infilling, clear cutting, tree harvesting, and cottage development
Proposed recovery actions and existing legislation may be insufficient to prevent the destruction of Vole Ears Lichen critical habitat via air-borne pollutants, including acid rain/fog.
8. Measuring Progress
The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution objectives for Vole Ears Lichen.
This recovery strategy and supporting action plan(s) will be subject to an adaptive management approach, whereby new information will be integrated on an ongoing basis. A five-year evaluation of the recovery strategy will be based upon the performance measures listed below.
Success of the recovery strategy implementation will be measured against the following performance indicators:
- stability of the three known populations of Vole Ears Lichen (as of January 2012) and no loss of adult thalli due to habitat loss, degradation, biological resource use of the species’ host tree, or invasive gastropods.
- no loss in the known range of the three populations (as of January 2012) due to habitat loss, degradation, biological resource use of the species’ host tree, or invasive gastropods.
- improved stewardship of Vole Ears Lichen sites through increased awareness among landowners, land managers, and those approving development plans. Improved stewardship can be measured through landowner and land-manager stewardship agreements, either formal or informal (i.e., ‘hand-shake’ agreements).
- reduced knowledge gaps regarding the distribution, dispersal patterns, population dynamics, threats and ecology of the species.
9. Statement on Action Plans
One or more action plans will be completed within three years of the final version of this recovery strategy being posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry.
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Cameron, R.P. 2006. Protected Area-working forest interface: concerns for protected areas management in Canada. Natural Areas Journal 26: 403-407.
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Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species
A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.
Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.
This action plan will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Vole Ears Lichen. The potential for the plan to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The SEA concluded that this plan will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail any significant adverse effects.
The effects on other species were also considered. Vole Ears Lichen is one of a suite of rare cyanolichens, many of which occur in similar habitats within the humid Atlantic forest region of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador. Because these species share similar habitat requirements, actions directed towards better understanding ecosystem-level associations and securing habitat for Vole Ears Lichen will almost certainly result in the protection of populations of other rare cyanolichens. At a regional level, any progress in reducing air-borne pollutants will benefit not only Vole Ears Lichen, but most (if not all) of the flora and fauna of the Atlantic forest region as well.
Appendix B: Knowledge Gaps to Recovery
- Identify life cycle of the species
- Genetic diversity (Newfoundland and Labrador vs. Nova Scotia)
- Dispersal distance: distance and mechanisms
- Track resilience of the lichen
- Identify microclimate requirements and specific effects of pollution and acid deposition
- Identify and examine sensitivity to, and effects of, air-borne pollutants
- Determine how invasive species are affecting forest regeneration and identify efficient and acceptable management actions to reduce invasive species
- Identify mortality factors and determine their population effect
- Effects of gastropod herbivory
Appendix C: Critical Habitat Maps for Smooth Goosefoot in Canada
A wetland, as defined under the Newfoundland and Labrador Water Resources Act, is land that has the water table at, near or above the land surface and includes bogs, fens, marshes, swamps and other shallow open water areas.
As defined under the Environment Act (Nova Scotia) a wetland is a marsh, swamp, fen or bog that either periodically or permanently has a water table at, near or above the land's surface or that is saturated with water, and sustains aquatic processes as indicated by the presence of poorly drained soils, hydrophytic vegetation (Sphagnum species and Cinnamon Fern) and biological activities adapted to wet conditions.
- Date Modified: