COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Vivid Dancer Argia vivida in Canada - 2015

Vivid Dancer
Vivid Dancer
Photo: Alan Harris ©

Special Concern
2015

Top of Page


Document Information

COSEWIC
Committee on the Status
of Endangered Wildlife
in Canada

COSEWIC logo

COSEPAC
Comité sur la situation
des espèces en péril
au Cananda

COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. This report may be cited as follows:

COSEWIC. 2015. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Vivid Dancer Argia vivida in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. ix + 53 pp. (Species at Risk Public Registry).

Production note:

COSEWIC would like to acknowledge Allan Harris and Rob Foster for writing the status report on the Vivid Dancer (Argia vivida), in Canada, prepared under contract with Environment Canada. This status report was overseen and edited by Jennifer Heron, Co-chair of the COSEWIC Arthropods Specialist Subcommittee.

For additional copies contact:

COSEWIC Secretariat
c/o Canadian Wildlife Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0H3

Tel.: 819-938-4125
Fax: 819-938-3984
E-mail: COSEWIC E-mail
Website: COSEWIC

Également disponible en français sous le titre Evaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur l’agrion vif (Argia vivida) au Canada.

Cover illustration/photo:

Vivid Dancer -- Photograph by Alan Harris.

Top of Page


COSEWIC Assessment Summary

Assessment Summary – May 2015

Common name
Vivid Dancer
Scientific name
Argia vivida
Status
Special Concern
Reason for designation
This damselfly is found in southern British Columbia and Banff, Alberta. Through much of its Canadian range it is restricted to thermal springs, but in the hot valleys of the Okanagan and the Fraser it is also found in cooler, spring-fed creeks. Habitat loss and degradation at most sites suggest subpopulations have declined. The species is threatened by intensive recreational use of thermal springs, livestock trampling at cool springs, and introduced fish. Sites are also vulnerable to potential tourism development and changes in springs caused by events such as droughts, earthquakes and landslides.
Occurrence
British Columbia, Alberta
Status history
Designated Special Concern in May 2015.

Top of Page


COSEWIC Executive Summary

Vivid Dancer
Argia vivida

Wildlife Species Description and Significance

Vivid Dancer is a robust damselfly (Order Odonata) 29.5 – 35mm long. Adult males are typically bright blue or occasionally violet blue, both forms with black markings. Females resemble males or may have more subdued colours, typically orange or red-brown and black. Vivid Dancer is distinguished from similar damselflies in other genera by wing venation patterns, the shape of reproductive structures, and comparatively longer leg spines. Vivid Dancer larvae are short, stocky and flattened, with broad, heavily pigmented, leaf-like gills.

For much of its Canadian range, Vivid Dancer is a specialist of thermal spring habitats. The species is the only documented odonate adapted to breed in geothermal springs in North America. The floral and faunal communities within thermal springs vary from site to site.

Distribution

The range of Vivid Dancer is within the southern half of British Columbia. The westernmost site is in Pemberton, extending east through the Okanagan Valley, the Kootenays to Banff in western Alberta. The species ranges south through the western United States to the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula in Mexico, east to Nebraska.

Habitat

Vivid Dancer larvae inhabit both thermal and cold springs and associated small streams. In Canada, the species primarily inhabits thermal springs at least 10°C warmer than the mean annual air temperature. The species is also recorded from low elevation cool springs in the Okanagan Valley and near Lytton, which are also two of the warmest regions of Canada during summer months. Adults forage and roost adjacent to water habitats and nearby forests.

Biology

Vivid Dancer overwinters as larvae and emerges as adults from late-April through mid-October, depending on the temperature of the spring. The minimum temperature for egg development is 11°C. Within thermal springs the generation time is one year, but in cooler springs the generation time is up to three years. Adults disperse 700 - 800 m within the surrounding forest and feed on small flying insects, such as mosquitoes, mayflies, and small moths. On cool days adults bask in sunlit forest patches to increase body temperature. In late summer, adults return to the spring to breed. Females lay eggs on emergent vegetation below the water’s surface.

Larvae are aquatic, feeding on small invertebrates and using aquatic vegetation for cover. Adults fall prey to robber flies, dragonflies, spiders, amphibians, and birds. Fish, amphibians, and possibly waterfowl likely consume Vivid Dancer larvae.

Population Size and Trends

Vivid Dancer population information is available for one site at Banff, with an estimate of 2,000 to 20,000 adults in 2005. Other springs lack population estimates; however, adult numbers are probably smaller based on available quality or undeveloped habitat. Population trend data are also lacking but most springs have undergone habitat damage from commercial and recreation use, suggesting populations have likely declined.

Threats and Limiting Factors

Habitat loss and degradation are the primary threats to Vivid Dancer. Threats include water diversion and degradation (e.g., cooling, pollution) by commercial thermal spring operations, alteration of springs and drainage channels by recreational users at non-commercial thermal springs, and livestock use at the cool springs sites in the Okanagan. Other potential threats include introduced fish at Banff and altered spring water discharge caused by road building. Sites are also vulnerable to changes in spring water discharge caused by stochastic events such as droughts, seismic activity, and landslides.

Protection, Status, and Ranks

Vivid Dancer is not protected under provincial legislation in BC or AB. Like all wildlife in national parks, Vivid Dancers in Banff National Park are protected under the National Parks Act. Some sites in Banff National Park are offered some habitat protection under the designation of sections of certain springs as critical habitat for the Banff Springs Snail. In BC, Vivid Dancer habitat occurs within heavily developed private lands and provincial parks, both with no specific habitat protection.

The global status rank is Secure (G5) and national rank in Canada is Imperilled (N2). Provincially the species is ranked Imperilled (S2) in BC and Critically Imperilled (S1) in Alberta.

Top of Page


Technical Summary

Scientific Name:
Argia vivida
English Name:
Vivid Dancer
French Name:
Agrion vif
Range of occurrence:
British Columbia, Alberta

Demographic Information

  • Generation time

    • 1-3 years
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in number of mature individuals?

    • Yes.
      Inferred based on habitat loss.

  • Estimated percent of continuing decline in total number of mature individuals within 5 years or 2 generations

    • Unknown.
  • [Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the last [10 years, or 3 generations].

    • Unknown.
  • [Projected or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over the next [10 years, or 3 generations].

    • Unknown.
  • [Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected] percent [reduction or increase] in total number of mature individuals over any [10 years, or 3 generations] period, over a time period including both the past and the future.

    • Unknown.
  • Are the causes of the decline clearly reversible and understood and ceased?

    • Partially understood (habitat loss), partially reversible (mitigation of threats at current sites) and not ceased.
  • Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals?

    • Unknown

Extent and Occupancy Information

  • Estimated extent of occurrence

    • 106,000 km²
  • Index of area of occupancy (IAO)

    (2x2 grid value).

    Cool springs populations are poorly documented and are likely more numerous than currently known.

    • 124 km²
  • Is the population severely fragmented?

    • Unknown.
  • Number of locations

    • 22
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in extent of occurrence?

    • No
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in index of area of occupancy?

    • Yes.
      Inferred decline in IAO based on habitat loss at known sites.
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in number of populations?

    • Yes.
      Inferred based on habitat loss.
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in number of locations*?

    • Yes. Inferred based on habitat loss.
  • Is there an [observed, inferred, or projected] continuing decline in [area, extent and/or quality] of habitat?

    • Yes.
      Observed, inferred and projected decline in extent and quality of habitat based on threats at known sites.
  • Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations?

    • No
  • Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations?

    • No
  • Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence?

    • No
  • Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy?

    • No

Number of Mature Individuals (in each population)

  • Population

    • Banff National Park
      • N Mature Individuals: 2000 – 20,000 adults
    • All other populations
      • N Mature Individuals: Unknown
    • Total
      • N Mature Individuals: Unknown

Quantitative Analysis

  • Probability of extinction in the wild is at least [20% within 20 years or 5 generations, or 10% within 100 years].

    • Not calculated.

Threats (actual or imminent, to populations or habitats)

Habitat loss and degradation are the primary threats. Additional threats include water diversion and degradation (e.g., cooling, pollution) by commercial thermal spring operations, alteration of springs and drainage channels by recreational users at non-commercial thermal springs, and livestock use at sites in the Okanagan. Other potential threats include introduced fish at Banff and altered spring water discharge caused by road building. Populations are also vulnerable to changes in spring water discharge caused by stochastic events such as droughts, seismic activity, and landslides.

Rescue Effect (immigration from outside Canada)

  • Status of outside population(s)?

    • Apparently stable in US range.
  • Is immigration known or possible?

    • Not known. Immigration unlikely
  • Would immigrants be adapted to survive in Canada?

    • Possibly
  • Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada?

    • Possibly
  • Is rescue from outside populations likely?

    • No

Data-Sensitive Species

  • Is this a data sensitive species?
    • No, almost all known thermal spring subpopulations are well documented in publicly available literature.

Status History

Designated Special Concern in May 2015.

Status and Reasons for Designation:

Status:
Special Concern
Alpha-numeric code:
Not Applicable
Reasons for designation:
This damselfly is found in southern British Columbia and Banff, Alberta. Through much of its Canadian range it is restricted to thermal springs, but in the hot valleys of the Okanagan and the Fraser it is also found in cooler, spring-fed creeks. Habitat loss and degradation at most sites suggest subpopulations have declined. The species is threatened by intensive recreational use of thermal springs, livestock trampling at cool springs, and introduced fish. Sites are also vulnerable to potential tourism development and changes in springs caused by events such as droughts, earthquakes and landslides.

Applicability of Criteria

Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable. Rates of decline unknown but inferred based on habitat loss.
Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation):
Not applicable. Although the IAO (124 km2) is below the threshold for Endangered and there is an observed continuing decline in (ii) the IAO, in (iii) area, extent and quality of habitat, in (iv) number of locations and in (v) number of mature individuals, none of the other sub-criteria are met.
Criterion C (Small and Declining Number of Mature Individuals):
Not applicable. Number of mature individuals exceeds threshold.
Criterion D (Very Small or Restricted Population):
Not applicable. Number of mature individuals, IAO and number of locations exceed threshold.
Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):
Not possible to calculate, no data available.

Top of Page


COSEWIC History

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Species designated at meetings of the full committee are added to the list. On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. SARA establishes COSEWIC as an advisory body ensuring that species will continue to be assessed under a rigorous and independent scientific process.

COSEWIC Mandate

The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens.

COSEWIC Membership

COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government science members and the co-chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species.

Definitions (2014)

Wildlife Species
A species, subspecies, variety, or geographically or genetically distinct population of animal, plant or other organism, other than a bacterium or virus, that is wild by nature and is either native to Canada or has extended its range into Canada without human intervention and has been present in Canada for at least 50 years.
Extinct (X)
A wildlife species that no longer exists.
Extirpated (XT)
A wildlife species no longer existing in the wild in Canada, but occurring elsewhere.
Endangered (E)
A wildlife species facing imminent extirpation or extinction.
Threatened (T)
A wildlife species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed.
Special Concern (SC)
(Note: Formerly described as “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or “Rare” prior to 1990.)
A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.
Not at Risk (NAR)
(Note: Formerly described as “Not In Any Category”, or “No Designation Required.”)
A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances.
Data Deficient (DD)
(Note: Formerly described as “Indeterminate” from 1994 to 1999 or “ISIBD” [insufficient scientific information on which to base a designation] prior to 1994. Definition of the [DD] category revised in 2006.)
A category that applies when the available information is insufficient (a) to resolve a species’ eligibility for assessment or (b) to permit an assessment of the species’ risk of extinction.

The Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, provides full administrative and financial support to the COSEWIC Secretariat.

Top of Page


Wildlife Species Description and Significance

Name and Classification

Phylum: Arthropoda - arthropods

Class: Insecta - insects

Subclass: Pterygota - winged insects

Infraclass: Palaeoptera - ancient winged insects

Order: Odonata Fabricius, 1793 - damselflies and dragonflies

Suborder: Zygoptera Selys, 1854 - damselflies

Family: Coenagrionidae Kirby, 1890 - pond damsels

Subfamily: Argiinae

Genus: Argia Rambur, 1842 - dancers

Species: Argia vivida Hagen in Selys, 1865 - Vivid Dancer

Taxonomic synonyms: Argia kurilis Hagen

Type locality: Cabo San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico (Paulson and Dunkle 2012).

English common name: Vivid Dancer

French common name: Agrion vif

Taxonomic Background and Similarities:

Argia is a diverse genus with at least 110 described species, all confined to the New World (Westfall and May 1996). Argia vivida (Vivid Dancer) was first described in 1865 (H.A. Hagen in Selys-Longchamps 1865) and no subspecies are recognized. The Apache Dancer (Argia munda Calvert 1902) and the Springwater Dancer (Argia plana Calvert 1902) were formerly considered varieties of Vivid Dancer, but have long since been recognized as distinct species (Gloyd 1958; Westfall and May 1996).

Morphological Description

Vivid Dancers are relatively robust damselflies (Figure 1). The body lengths of males from Banff, Alberta (29.5-33.5 mm) are slightly smaller than those of females (30-35 mm) (Walker 1953) as is hind wing length (males 18.5-21.0 mm; females 21-24 mm). Elsewhere in their continental range, adults are 29-38 mm in total length, with a hind wing length of 18-26 mm (Paulson 2009).

Figure 1. Male Vivid Dancer at Nakusp Hotspring July 20, 2013.
Male Vivid Dancer at Nakusp Hotspring
Photograph by Alan Harris.
Long description for Figure 1

Photo of an adult male Vivid Dancer(lateral view), showing the typical bright blue colouring with black markings.

Top of Page

Damselflies have three life stages: adults, larvae, and eggs. Adult Vivid Dancer males are typically bright blue with black markings, but may be violet-blue, brownish-violet, or brown (Westfall and May 1996). Females are polymorphic, with the andromorph (“male” form) resembling typical bright blue males with black markings, and the heteromorph (“female” form) with more subdued colours, typically orange or red-brown and black in Canadian forms (Conrad and Pritchard 1989; Acorn 2004), but also greenish-grey, brown, blue, or a mix of blue and brown (Paulson 2009; Westfall and May 1996).

Teneral individuals (newly emerged immature adults) are pale grey, tan, or cream-coloured (Conrad and Pritchard 1989; Westfall and May 1996; Paulson 2009). Males and both female morphs also experience a temperature-related physiological colour change i.e., individuals are “dark phase” at ambient shade temperatures below approximately 20°C and change to a more vivid-coloured “bright phase” at temperatures above 20-24°C, particularly when basking (Conrad and Pritchard 1989). Wings of both sexes are clear (typical form) to slightly smoky (Westfall and May 1996). See Westfall and May (1996) for more a detailed morphological description.

In Canada, Vivid Dancer is distinguished from similarly coloured bluets (Enallagma spp.) and other co-occurring damselflies by wing venation patterns and the shape of reproductive structures. Species of Argia have longer tibial spines than those found in other Canadian coenagrionid genera. Vivid Dancer males can usually be distinguished from Emma’s Dancer (A. emma), the only other Argia in western Canada (Cannings 2008), by the violet, rather than blue colour of Emma’s Dancer. In Vivid Dancer males, the black stripe on the top of the thorax is as wide as the adjacent pale stripes, but in Emma’s Dancer the black stripe is half as wide as the pale stripes. Vivid Dancer females are most reliably separated from other Argia by the shape of the mesostigmal lamina (a pair of plates on the upper front thorax that engage with male reproductive structures during copulation).

Vivid Dancer larvae (nymphs) are elongate and approximately 17 mm long including the terminal gills (4.5 mm) (Walker 1953; Figure 2). Vivid Dancer larvae are shorter and more thick-set than the elongate, cylindrical larvae of other coenagrionid genera (Walker 1953). Vivid Dancer larvae have smaller gills (caudal lamellae) than those of Emma’s Dancer (Kennedy 1915), with acute rather than round tips (Walker 1953).

Figure 2. Vivid Dancer larva at Upper Middle Spring, Banff National Park on January 8, 2003.
Vivid Dancer larva at Upper Middle Spring
Photograph by Dwayne Lepitzki.
Long description for Figure 2

Photo showing the whitish, elongate larva of the Vivid Dancer.

Top of Page

Vivid Dancer eggs are approximately four times as wide as long and pointed at one end. The eggs are light cream-coloured when first laid, but soon turn black (Leggott and Pritchard 1985b).

Population Spatial Structure and Variability

In Canada, spatial structure, variability and genetic structure of Vivid Dancer has not been studied. Most of the Canadian sites are geographically isolated from one another and may also be genetically isolated due to limited dispersal capability (see Dispersal and Migration).

Designatable Units

The majority of Vivid Dancer sites occur within the Southern Mountain National Ecological Area. The Pemberton area sites occur in the Pacific National Ecological Area (see Distribution) (COSEWIC 2011b).

No studies of population genetic structure, discreteness, or evolutionary significance among sites have been completed. In the absence of any such evidence the species is considered to have one designatable unit in Canada.

Special Significance

The species is the only documented odonate adapted to breed in geothermal springs in North America. The damselfly is emblematic of thermal spring fauna and flora in Canada. Many of the thermal springs where Vivid Dancer occurs have additional species restricted to these habitats. In particular, some of the Banff thermal springs provide habitat for the endangered Canadian endemic Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) (COSEWIC 2008), and some sections were home to the extinct Banff Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae smithi), an endemic subspecies (Renaud and McAllister 1988). In addition, 28 species of rare mosses and three species of liverworts occur within some of the Banff area thermal springs (Krieger 2003; Lepitzki and Pacas 2010).

There is less information on the floral and faunal composition within the remaining thermal springs where Vivid Dancer occurs, although these springs hold the same ecological significance. For example, at Fairmont Springs, eight rare plants co-occur with Vivid Dancer, including the nationally endangered Southern Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) (Environment Canada 2013).

Vivid Dancer and other odonates are increasingly popular among naturalists, as indicated by the growing number of damselfly and dragonfly field guides and web sites as well as organized count events.

There is no Aboriginal traditional knowledge available for Vivid Dancer.

Top of Page


Distribution

Global Range

Vivid Dancer ranges in western North America from south-central British Columbia south through 14 states to the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula in Mexico, and east to Nebraska (Figure 3, Paulson 2009). Although Kondratief (2000) shows Vivid Dancers as occurring in 16 counties in Oklahoma, no other source (e.g., Bick and Beckemeyer 1998; Paulson 2009; Abbott 2013) indicates it occurring in Oklahoma. Furthermore, Vivid Dancer has not been reported for adjacent Kansas (Beckemeyer 2004) or Texas (Abbott 2013). Vivid Dancer’s global range encompasses approximately 3 million km2 (based on Paulson 2009); however, it is patchily distributed within this area.

Figure 3. Global and Canadian range of Vivid Dancer modified from Paulson (2009) and Abbott (2013).
Map
Long description for Figure 3

Map of the global and Canadian distribution of the Vivid Dancer, where it ranges in western North America from south-central British Columbia south through 14 states to the southern tip of the Baja Peninsula in Mexico and east to Nebraska.

Top of Page

Canadian Range

Vivid Dancer is recorded from 33 sites throughout southern British Columbia and Alberta (Figure 4). Sites are defined as springs (see Habitat) with confirmed breeding (e.g., presence of larvae); adjacent springs (less than approximately 100 m apart) and associated outflows are considered a single site (e.g., Middle Springs, Banff) (Table 1).

Figure 4. Canadian Vivid Dancer sites and thermal springs (with no documented records) within the Canadian range (labelled sites have been surveyed).
Map
Long description for Figure 4

Map showing Vivid Dancer sites and thermal springs without documented records within the Canadian range. The Vivid Dancer is recorded from 33 sites throughout southern British Columbia and Alberta.

Top of Page

Table 1. Potential historical and confirmed sitesNote a of Table 1 (alternate names are in parentheses) for Vivid Dancer in Canada.
Site Name
(EO_IDNote b of Table 1)
Year First
Recorded
Year Last
Recorded
Year Last SurveyedLand OwnershipWater Temperature (°C)Elevation (m)
Albert Canyon EO# 956198319982013private26680
Banff, Forty Mile (Creek)200220132013Banff National Park151605
Banff, Vermilion Cool Springs3 EO# 22092002*20022002Banff National Park17-211400
Banff, Cave & Basin NHS (4 separate springs: Cave, Basin, Upper C&B, and Lower C&B and associated outflow streams) EO# 2205190820142014Banff National Park32-351460
Banff, Middle Springs - (4 separate springs: Lower, Gord’s, Upper, West Cave and associated outflows) EO# 2207199620142014Banff National Park21-461530
Banff, Middle Springs Bog200320032003Banff National Park-1470
Banff, above Middle Springs - Alpine HutNote c of Table 1
EO# 2208
200220022002Banff National Park (within Middle Springs Wildlife Corridor)N/A1550
Banff, Kidney Spring EO# 2002200220142014Banff National Park23-391558
Banff Upper Hot Spring199620142014Banff National ParkUp to ~ 471584
Banff Springs Hotel4---Banff National ParkN/AN/A
Boston Bar EO# 8884200620062006BC crown?N/A290
BX Creek, Vernon2013?2013?2013??N/AN/A
Chopaka199719971997BC crown?-360
Dewar Creek EO# 8905200020012001provincial park831560
Fairmont Hot Spring (Indian Tubs) EO# 3758199120132013private471000
Field190519051905?N/A1260
Fort Steele198119811981Private?N/A790
Glacier190219021905?N/A1260
Halcyon Hot Springs198519861986Private50.7550
Kearns Creek - White Lake EO# 2510199719971997BC crown?N/A530
Little Sand Creek -Jaffrey EO# 8882199919992013BC crown?N/A870
Little Wilson Lake (Wilson Lake/Creek) Warm Springs EO# 8908200020012013BC crown forest licence351000
Lussier (Whiteswan) Hot SpringsNote d of Table 1---crown43N/A
Lytton, 2 km south of EO# 8885200720072007?N/A285
Lytton, 4.25 km north of EO# 8887200720072007BC crown?N/A280
Lytton, 8.9 km north of EO# 8888200720072007BC crown?N/A325
Madeline Lake EO# 3383198319971997BC crown?N/A495
Meager Creek Hot Spring EO# 5273198819891989BC crown?N/A910
Nakusp Hot Springs (Kuskanax Creek)
EO# 388
198019942013Village of Nakusp (public); local government56850
Okanagan Lake (Penticton Yacht Club)
EO# 4119
199719971997BC crown?N/A360
Pebble Creek (Lillooet River, Keyhole) Hot Spring EO# 8916200020022002BC crown?54600
Radium Hot Springs----44N/A
Ram Creek Hot Springs EO# 8902198920132013ecological reserve361415
Richter Pass EO# 4338199119911991BC crown?N/A730
Rosebud Lake199919992013Wildlife Refuge, Crown Land and Private Land19810
Skaha Lake EO# 3851199719971997private?N/A340
Summerland (Crescent Beach) EO# 1504199719971997private?N/A405
Summerland (Kevin Brook / Munroe Ave Marsh) EO# 5408199719971997private?N/A493
Summerland (Switchback Road)201120112011privateN/A380
Wild Horse Hot Springs (Wildhorse Creek)200020022013crown21-271710

Notes of Table 1

Note [a] of Table 1

Adjacent springs and associated outflows are considered one site if within approximately 100 m of each other

Return to note a referrer of table 1

Note [b] of Table 1

Element Occurrence identification number (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre and Alberta Conservation Data Centre)

Return to note b referrer of table 1

Note [c] of Table 1

Adults seen but no evidence of successful breeding (e.g., exuviae)

Return to note c referrer of table 1

Note [d] of Table 1

Potential historical site.

Return to note d referrer of table 1

Top of Page

Canadian sites represent the northern limit of Vivid Dancer’s global range, and less than 3% of Vivid Dancer’s global range is in Canada (as mapped in Paulson 2009). Its high thermal flight threshold (see Biology and Limiting Factors) may limit reproductive activity at high latitudes and determine the species’ northern range limits (Leggott and Pritchard 1986). Most Canadian sites are associated with thermal springs where the source water temperature is at least 10°C warmer than the mean annual air temperature of the region in which the spring occurs, which is approximately 0°C for the southern Canadian Cordillera (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001). The species may have been more widespread during the warm Hypsithermal period but has subsequently been restricted to warm sites (Pritchard 1989).

British Columbia sites:

Vivid Dancer sites can be grouped into four main regions within its Canadian range:

  1. near Meager and Pebble creeks in the Coast Range northwest of Whistler and Pemberton;
  2. Fraser River canyon near Lytton;
  3. Okanagan Valley from Summerland south to the international border, with a northern outlier near Vernon (BX Creek);
  4. Kootenay region east to Banff in the Rocky Mountains. In Canada, Vivid Dancer is recorded from 280 to 1620 m elevation (Table 1).

The northernmost historical Vivid Dancer record is 51.4°N at Field, BC (Walker 1953). Vivid Dancer has not been recorded from thermal springs at Liard and Deer River in northeastern BC (Salter 2003). The majority of sites are in the Kootenay region primarily because of the thermal springs in this area (Cannings pers. comm. 2013).

The cool spring Vivid Dancer sites in Canada are recorded within the warm low elevation valley bottoms of the Okanagan Valley and near Lytton. Two of the oldest Vivid Dancer records in Canada (both supported by specimens) are at sites where there are no documented thermal springs: Glacier (Osburn 1905) and Field, BC (Walker 1953). Whitehouse (1941) noted there was a spring-fed creek at Field, and speculated that the species may have been breeding in artificially warmed drainage ditches from the railway roundhouse. Walker (1953) described them as “locally abundant” at Field. At Glacier, a single Vivid Dancer male was collected in 1902 “over a stagnant pool in a small mountain meadow at an altitude of 6000 ft” (1829 m) (Osburn 1905). The specific collection sites are unknown and there have been no recent searches at either site.

Alberta sites:

Thermal springs in Banff National Park have not been consistently named or mapped leading to some confusion regarding Vivid Dancer distribution. There are a number of thermal springs along Sulphur Mountain and Forty Mile Creek, as well as cool springs at third Vermilion Lake (Figure 5).

Vivid Dancers adults are recorded from Cave and Basin National Historic Site (NHS) (Walker 1927), which includes four main springs that are considered one site (EO #001, Alberta Conservation Data Centre 2014): Cave Pool, Basin Pool, Lower Cave & Basin Springs, and Upper Cave & Basin Springs, as well as associated drainages that flow into a marsh on the Bow River floodplain. Adults were first collected at the Banff Cave and Basin springs in 1908 (Sanson 1908) and larvae in 1970 (Pritchard 1971). At the Cave and Basin NHS, larvae and adults have been found from the Upper Cave and Basin Springs and at least as far downstream (approximately 300 m) as the fish observation platform at the Cave & Basin Marsh (Rice 2002a).

Vivid Dancers also breed at the Lower Middle Springs and Upper Middle Springs (Hornung and Pacas 2006; Kortello and Ham 2010; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996 - 2014), as well as at the West Cave Middle Spring and Gord’s Spring (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). These four springs are treated as one site due to their close proximity. Exuviae (exoskeletons of final instar larva left after adult emergence) have been found at the nearby Middle Springs Bog (Hornung and Pacas 2006).

Figure 5. Vivid Dancer observations near the town of Banff, Banff National Park, Alberta.
...
(GoogleEarth™ imagery)
Long description for Figure 5

Google Earth image of area around Banff, Alberta, indicating Vivid Dancer observations.

Top of Page

Vivid Dancer adults have been observed at Kidney Springs (Rice 2002b; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014) paired adults, and larvae at both the Upper Hot and Kidney springs with a teneral also being seen at Kidney Springs (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). Both the Upper Hot and Kidney springs were previously thought to no longer provide suitable habitat, with the Upper Thermal spring being a commercial bath (Hornung and Pacas 2006). Adult Vivid Dancers have been observed in tandem ovipositing at third Vermilion Lake cool spring near Banff (Rice 2002b) but no larvae or exuviae have been observed there and it is not considered suitable breeding habitat (Hornung and Pacas 2006). A reproducing population of Vivid Dancers was recently recorded at a thermal spring along Forty Mile Creek beginning in 2002 (Rice 2002a; Lepitzki pers. comm. 2014; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014), approximately 6 km north of the Cave and Basin NHS (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001).

The historical Glacier and Field sites may be extirpated (Table 1), although there have no recent surveys. There may have also been a loss of undocumented sites at Radium and Lussier hot springs in BC, as well as the possible loss of breeding habitat at the Banff Springs Hotel (although the species still persists elsewhere in Banff).

Extent of Occurrence and Area of Occupancy

The extent of occurrence (EO) is 106,000 km2 as measured by minimum convex polygon. However, the distribution of Vivid Dancer within the Canadian EO is very patchy. The index of area of occupancy (IAO) encompasses 124 km2 using a 2 km x 2 km grid (31 grid squares), although the IAO is likely larger based on lack of search effort across cooler springs. 

Search Effort

Thermal springs are well documented due to their recreational popularity; approximately 50 thermal springs have been documented in the southern Canadian Cordillera between 49° and 51°N (Fairbank and Faulkner 1992; Woodsworth 1999). Most thermal springs in southern BC are within fault systems associated with major river valleys: 1) Columbia, 2) Kootenay, 3) Okanagan, 4) Lillooet, and 5) Harrison Lake valleys (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001). In southern AB, thermal springs are mostly within the Sulphur Mountain thrust fault near Banff, the Rundle Thrust (Canmore, Many Springs) and Misty Thrust (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001; Grasby and Lepitzki 2002).

The first Vivid Dancer records in Canada are from Glacier BC (1905), Field BC (1927) the Cave & Basin Springs at Banff, AB (1953) and from various BC sites during the 1970s (Cannings and Stuart 1977). Appendix 1 summarizes Vivid Dancer records in Canada.

BC Search Effort:

In BC, Odonata inventory in the Montane Cordillera has been extensive and is well documented south of 51°N. Since 1900, more than 3000 person-hours have been documented surveying adult odonates totalling approximately 18,000 records from 1200 sites (COSEWIC 2011a). Regardless, inventory in BC has not been systematic and most Odonata surveys have been along roadsides or within readily accessible aquatic habitats and few surveys have targeted remote and difficult-to-access springs. Additional inventory is needed in more remote areas (Cannings and Cannings 1998; Cannings pers. comm. 2014).

Odonata surveys have been conducted in the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys (Cannings et al. 1998), the Columbia Basin east of the Okanagan, central and northern BC in 2000-2005 (Cannings et al. 2000), and the southern Caribou north of the Thompson Valley in 2008 (COSEWIC 2011a). In 1997 inventory of the Okanagan basin (the best collected area in the zone) increased Vivid Dancer sites in the basin from three to eight (Cannings and Cannings 1998). In 2003, aquatic insect surveys in BC documented Vivid Dancer at thermal springs near Ram Creek, Dewar Creek, Wildhorse Creek, Pebble Creek, and Wilson Creek (Salter 2003), bringing the total of recent and confirmed provincial sites to thirteen. Vivid Dancers have not been recorded from Field and Glacier for over 80 years, although there has been little survey effort at these sites.

Liard and Deer River hot springs in northern British Columbia have been surveyed for aquatic insects (Salter 2003) and no Vivid Dancer larvae were found. There are approximately 38 thermal springs in southern BC that have not been surveyed or that have no detected Vivid Dancer (Table 2).

Table 2. Thermal springs (n=38) in southern Canadian CordilleraNote e of Table 2,Note f of Table 2 without Vivid Dancer populations (may or may not have been surveyed).
Major
Geological FeatureNote e of Table 2
Location NameWater Temp. (°C)
Columbia River FaultFosthall SpringsN/A
Columbia River FaultHalfway River59
Columbia River FaultJorden Ranch12
Columbia River FaultOctopus Creek49
Columbia River FaultSnowshoe Rabbit Warm SpringN/A
Columbia River FaultSt. Leon Hot Springs47
Columbia River FaultTaylor Warm Spring25
Columbia River FaultUpper Halfway River Warm SpringsN/A
Columbia River FaultWhiskey PointN/A
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltElaho River30
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltNo Good Warm SpringN/A
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltPitt River55
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltPlacid60
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltShovel Nose57
Garibaldi Volcanic BeltTurbid Creek30
Harrison Lake FaultAugust Jacob43
Harrison Lake FaultClear Creek60.8
Harrison Lake FaultGlacier CreekN/A
Harrison Lake FaultHarrison Lake (highly developed, little natural habitat)62.4
Harrison Lake FaultSkookumchuck (St. Agnes Well)50
Harrison Lake FaultSloquet Creek60.8
Okanagan Valley FaultAngel (Kelowna) - KLO CreekN/A
Purcell TrenchAinsworth45
Purcell TrenchCrawford Bay (Creek) Warm Springs32
Purcell TrenchFry CreekN/A
Purcell TrenchRiondelN/A
Rocky Mountain TrenchBuhl CreekN/A
Rocky Mountain TrenchMutton Creek Warm SpringN/A
Rocky Mountain TrenchRam Creek37
Rocky Mountain TrenchRed Rock Cool SpringsN/A
Rocky Mountain TrenchToby Creek11
Rocky Mountain TrenchWolfenden28
Rocky MountainsCanmore Spring12
Rocky MountainsFording Mountain (Sulphur) Warm Springs21
Rocky MountainsMany Springs11
Rocky MountainsMist Mt.33
West Coast FaultAhousat (Flores Island) Warm Springs22
West Coast FaultSharp Point (Ramsay Hot Springs, Hot Spring Cove)58.5

Notes of Table 2

Note [e] of Table 2

Grasby and Hutcheon (2001)

Return to note e referrer of table 2

Note [f] of Table 2

Woodsworth (1999); Litton (2005).

Return to note f referrer of table 2

Top of Page

Cool springs in BC are both poorly mapped and surveyed throughout the range of Vivid Dancer. The recent records of Vivid Dancers at low elevation cool springs near Lytton and in BX Creek near Vernon, BC; as well as the older records at Glacier and Field (Table 1) suggest that there may be other undocumented sites at cool springs and associated streams in the southern Cordillera. The cool springs with Vivid Dancer records though are in two of the hottest areas in Canada, and the presence of the damselfly at these sites is likely associated with the hot temperatures (see Habitat).

Alberta Search Effort:

Vivid Dancer was first collected at Banff in 1908 and has been the subject of numerous studies beginning in the 1970s. In 2002 the species was recorded at Forty Mile Creek (Rice 2002b; Lepitzki pers. comm. 2014) although a “dragonfly” nymph (which was probably Vivid Dancer) was first observed at this spring on 31 October 1998 (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014).

Vivid Dancer adults have been observed at cool springs by third Vermilion Lake and the old Alpine Clubhouse cool springs near Banff (Rice 2002b), but there is no evidence of successful breeding (larvae or exuviae) (Rice 2002b; Hornung and Pacas 2006).

Seventeen separate thermal springs in Banff National Park have been surveyed once every 3 weeks from January 1996 through July 2000; and then once every 4 weeks from August 2000 to present, while studying the Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni)(Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014) totalling 268 surveys. Incidental observations of flying odonates as well as odonate larvae are recorded, including Vivid Dancer at most of these seventeen thermal springs.

Thermal springs between Norquay and Brewster mountains, as well as others in the Banff Bow Valley, have been surveyed at least four times (Oct 1998 through July 2013) (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). There are no specific Odonata surveys at Miette Hot Springs (250 km north of Banff) in Jasper National Park although Lepitzki and Lepitzki have visited these springs looking for snails (COSEWIC 2008) and would have likely noticed Vivid Dancers if they were present. In AB, there are few thermal springs with suitable habitat (Table 2).

Top of Page


Habitat

Habitat Requirements

General spring habitat:

Throughout their global range, Vivid Dancers are typically recorded adjacent to springs and associated small streams of varying temperatures, but also flowing irrigation canals in open country (Westfall and May 1996; Paulson 2009). In Canada, Vivid Dancers are associated with thermal springs (Leggott and Pritchard 1985b), with the exception of low elevation cool springs in the Okanagan Valley and near Lytton, and historical occurrences at Glacier (BC) and Field (BC). This habitat association is so strong that Williamson (1932, in Walker 1953) stated “So dependent is it on springs that its presence anywhere can be taken as positive proof of adjacent spring water”.

Larval habitat:

Vivid Dancer larvae develop in small spring-fed streams and pools. The preferred water temperature for larval Vivid Dancers at the Banff Cave & Basin Springs and Albert Canyon Springs was 28°C and the 96 hour LD50 (where 50% of individuals die) was 36.8°C, similar to those recorded for other odonates (Pritchard 1980). The water temperature at the Banff Cave & Basin Springs at Banff is approximately 22-30 °C year-round where the larvae have been observed, compared to Albert Canyon (AB), which fluctuates from 5°C in winter to 20°C in summer (Leggott and Pritchard 1985a) and Dewar Creek (BC), which has an annual range of 9-32 °C (Salter 2003). Discharge temperatures for thermal springs within the range of Vivid Dancer are variable, from the defined minimum of 10°C to a maximum of 82°C for the Dewar Creek spring, and an overall average of 39°C (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001; Table 1).

Temperatures at the hot water source may be too high for Vivid Dancer larval development but are suitable farther downstream after atmospheric cooling and/ or influx of cooler surface waters. For example, at Wilson Creek (BC) the water temperature air-cooled from 34° to 21°C 150 m downstream in October (Salter 2003). Water temperature at the main vent at Dewar Creek (BC) was 82°C but had cooled to 28°C at the site where larvae were collected (Salter 2003). At Banff (AB) and, likely, other springs, there are seasonal changes in water temperatures, with springs reaching their maximum temperature during the winter when water infiltration is lowest (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002; COSEWIC 2008).

Vivid Dancer larvae are recorded from spring runs and small to medium-sized streams with good current, as well as flowing irrigation canals in open country in other parts of its global range in the United States (Paulson 2009). Vivid Dancer larvae appear to require higher oxygen concentrations than do other coenagrionid damselflies, often moving into stream currents of appropriate speed (Pritchard 1991; Corbet 1999). Discharge is usually low (1 to 50 l/s) at thermal springs in the southern Canadian Cordillera; however, higher flow rates occur at Meager Creek (up to 500 l/s) (Fairbank and Faulkner 1992; Grasby and Hutcheon 2001). Flow stoppages have been recorded at Banff (AB) at the Upper Hot Springs, Kidney Spring, Upper Middle Spring, and Gord’s Spring (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010) as well as at the West Cave Middle Spring (Lepitzki and Lepitzki 1996-2014 unpubl. data).

Oviposition sites:

Vivid Dancers oviposit in emergent vegetation below the water’s surface (Hornung and Pacas 2006) including dense sedge beds (Paulson 2009). They are typically found at smaller and more heavily vegetated streams than Emma’s Dancers (Argia emma) where they coexist (Paulson 2009). In the thermal outflow streams at the Banff Cave & Basin Springs, Vivid Dancer larvae hid in lush vegetation--primarily pondweed (Potamogeton sp.), and “water cress”, with some non-native plant species (Pritchard 1971). Rocks and woody vegetation are typically present and used for adult perch sites (Paulson 2009).

Adult foraging habitat:

Adjacent terrestrial habitats are important for dispersal, foraging, mating and roosting (Corbet 1999). Females use terrestrial habitat away from springs more frequently than do males (Kortello and Ham 2010), as is typical of many odonates (Foster and Soluk 2006). Females and teneral males forage widely, enabling them to avoid conspecific competition and to build up energy reserves for reproduction (Kirkton and Schultz 2001; Bried and Ervin 2006).

Adult Vivid Dancers require a minimum thoracic temperature of approximately 26°C for flight (Leggott and Pritchard 1986), well above the average daily summer temperature in much of its Canadian range outside the Okanagan (BC). As a result, Vivid Dancers often bask in sunlit patches (Pritchard and Kortello 1997), and their flight activity is sporadic on overcast days (Leggott and Pritchard 1986). At Banff, adults were more frequently caught in sunny, open areas along trails and thinned areas compared to closed forest with less sunlight penetration (Ham and Kortello 2005). They most commonly perch on bare ground, logs, and rocks, as well as boardwalks and brush piles (Pritchard and Kortello 1997; Ham and Kortello 2005; Kortello and Ham 2010; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014).

Roosting habitat:

At night Vivid Dancer adults roost in trees (Conrad and Pritchard 1988; Pritchard and Kortello 1997), perhaps to slow the radiant loss of heat (Kortello and Ham 2010). Night surveys at Banff recorded 21 Vivid Dancers primarily roosting in spruce (Picea spp.) trees, interspersed with Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannii), Poplar (Populus balsamifera), willow and Aspen (Populus tremuloides) (Ham and Kortello 2005; Kortello and Ham 2010). Many aspects of nocturnal roosting behaviour in Vivid Dancer, such as preferred tree species, diameter, and canopy closure, are poorly known and difficult to observe (Kortello and Ham 2010).

Habitat Trends

Habitat trends for Vivid Dancer are mainly attributed to recreational use, whether long-term and gradual use by non-commercial bathers or intensive infrastructure and commercial development. For the past century, the cumulative degradation of these thermal springs has been ongoing at almost all Vivid Dancer sites, the most prominent at Fairmont (BC), Albert Canyon (AB), Halcyon (BC), Nakusp (BC), and Banff (AB). Vivid Dancer has almost certainly been extirpated from some of the developed thermal springs around Radium and Banff (Cannings and Cannings 1998).

Even thermal springs within protected areas, such as Ram Creek Ecological Reserve (BC Parks) and Lussier springs (Whiteswan Provincial Park, BC) have also been degraded by bathers, the latter so modified that if Vivid Dancer historically occupied the site, they are likely now extirpated (Salter 2003).

The most prominent example of long-term and documented habitat trend information is within the Banff Springs area. There were originally several spring outlets at the Upper Hot Spring, forming a large tufa mound (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002). In the late 1800s, these sources were piped for a public swimming pool (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002). Both Vivid Dancer adults and larvae have been recorded at the Upper Hot Spring (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). However, there has been long-term habitat degradation given the recent high frequency of drying (it has dried 14 of the past 19 years: COSEWIC 2008; Lepitzki unpubl. data) and prolonged discharge of grey water (e.g., chlorinated, etc.) from the public bathing facility.

Kidney spring has been so modified it was initially thought to no longer provide suitable larval habitat (Hornung and Pacas 2006), although adults have consistently been recorded (Rice 2002b; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). These springs have dried twice over the past 19 years (COSEWIC 2008; Lepitzki unpubl. data). Kidney Spring also has been off-limits to the public since 2001 (COSEWIC 2008).

Other areas within Banff may have at one time been habitat for Vivid Dancer. The outflow stream where the Banff Springs Hotel parking lot now sits (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010) and a spring at the base of Stoney Squaw Mountain buried by the construction of the Banff interchange (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002) being two examples.

Park infrastructure improvements, maintenance and renovation have likely impacted Vivid Dancer habitat at Cave and Basin National Historic Site (Parks Canada 2007) although in the longer term have reduced trampling and disturbance to sensitive habitats. Middle Springs has been closed to the public since 1995 (COSEWIC 2008).

Top of Page


Biology

Vivid Dancer has three life stages; eggs and larvae (aquatic) and adult (terrestrial) (Corbet 1999). Vivid Dancer distribution, dispersal and life cycle is well studied, primarily from work at Banff (AB), Albert Canyon, Halcyon and other sites in BC, and Idaho (US) (Pritchard and Pelchat 1977; Pritchard 1980, 1982, 1988, 1989, 1991; Conrad and Pritchard 1988, 1989, 1990; Prichard and Kortello 1997; Rice 2002a; Salter 2003; Hornung and Pacas 2006; Kortello and Ham 2010).

Life Cycle and Reproduction

Vivid Dancers overwinter as larvae, and emerge as adults from late-April through late-September, peaking from mid-July to early-August and persisting in some places to mid-October (Prichard 1971; Leggot and Pritchard 1985a; Cannings 2002; Acorn 2004; British Columbia Conservation Data Centre 2013; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). Farther south, the flight season is from February through October in California (Westfall and May 1996), and potentially year-round. As is typical of many odonates, newly emerged adults forage away from their home water bodies within surrounding forests until they mature (Corbet 1999).

Males perch on rocks or vegetation adjacent to their aquatic habitat. Before midday, males bask at sunspots in the forest away from water and dart out to grab passing females for mating (Acorn 2004; Paulson 2009). Copulation lasts for more than 30 minutes, followed by a tandem flight for one or two hours before the pair arrives at water and begins to oviposit (Conrad and Pritchard 1988, 1990). As the day progresses, unmated males move slowly towards the water, arriving at about the same time as ovipositing pairs. If a tandem pair separates during oviposition, unmated males will attempt to capture the recently released gravid female (Conrad and Pritchard 1990). If successful, a male will take the female in tandem and begin another complete sequence of mating and oviposition, but with copulation lasting less than 10 minutes (Conrad 1987).

   Eggs are laid singly into the stems of emergent and aquatic vegetation (Leggott and Pritchard 1985b; Paulson 2009). Documented oviposition sites at Banff sites include beds of Stonewort (Chara) (Kortello pers. comm. 2013), a stick, wet vegetation, outflow streams and into the water (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). Oviposition was observed at Nakusp Hot Springs in July 2013 in a hot spring drainage channel about 20 cm wide and 2 – 3 cm deep (Harris pers. obs. 2013). The tandem pair landed on a sedge stem 3 cm above the stream surface and for 30 seconds the female repeatedly dipped her abdomen into the water.

In lab trials, Vivid Dancers from Banff had 12-14 instars, with each instar approximately 1.24 times larger than the preceding one (Leggott and Pritchard 1985a,b). Growth rates and larval stage duration may depend on water temperature (Leggott and Prichard 1985a). At the Banff Cave & Basin Springs, the life cycle is approximately one year, likely due to warmer year-round water temperatures. In contrast, Vivid Dancers have a 3-year life cycle at Albert Canyon where water temperatures fluctuate from 5°C in the winter to 20°C in the summer (Leggott and Pritchard 1985a; Pritchard 1989). Vivid Dancer larvae had virtually no growth from November to April at Albert Canyon, and it appears larval diapause synchronizes emergence to allow adults to experience suitable temperatures (Pritchard 1989).

Physiology and Adaptability

Vivid Dancer is the only documented odonate adapted to breed in geothermal springs in North America (Corbet 1999). Egg development requires a minimum of 11.25°C. The species occupies a variety of temperature regimes across its global range, using thermal springs to meet the higher temperature requirements in northern regions (Pritchard 1989). In some springs, Vivid Dancer larvae diapause, otherwise the warm water temperatures would enable winter emergence when adult survival would be unlikely (Leggott and Pritchard 1985).

Dispersal and Migration

Overall, Vivid Dancer does not disperse far from water (Westfall and May 1996), which is typical of many damselflies (Corbet 1999). In arid habitats, teneral adults are commonly observed near streams and do not likely disperse far from their emergence site (Paulson 2009). In Canada, most Vivid Dancer sites are small, isolated and with habitat unlikely to form dispersal routes greater than a few kilometres apart.

Mark-recapture studies at Banff show limited dispersal. In 2003, only two males of a total of 549 marked adults moved between Middle Springs and Cave & Basin Springs (approximately 900 m) (Hornung and Pacas 2006). During a 2005 study, 59 of the 78 recaptures (1473 adults marked) moved less than 300 m and the mean flight distance of 181 ± 22 m (Ham and Kortello 2005; Kortello and Ham 2010). One male and female moved between Middle Springs and Cave & Basin Springs in 2005, with dispersal distances of 600-900 m observed within 24 to 96 hours after initial capture and release.

Observations at BC sites suggest similar dispersal distances. An adult was observed approximately 750 m downstream of Nakusp springs on July 20, 2013 and 12 adults were found along a forest access road as far as 800 m from Ram Creek spring the following day (Foster pers. obs. 2013).

Vivid Dancer sites in the Summerland BC area may act as a metapopulation (Cannings pers. comm. 2013) similar to those on Sulphur Mountain at Banff.

Interspecific Interactions

Thermal springs macroinvertebrate fauna changes along the downstream gradient of water temperature, dissolved solids, and oxygen (Corbet 1999). Extreme conditions at the spring origin are habitable by a few specialized taxa (e.g., Banff Springs Snail), while cooler downstream pools provide warm refugia to a broader suite of invertebrate taxa (Hornung and Pacas 2006). Undisturbed, thermal springs discharge pools are typically characterized by the growth of cyanobacteria and filamentous, white sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiothrix sp.) (Jasinska pers. comm.1999 in Grasby and Lepitzki 2002). Amphipods (Family Gammaridae), ostracods (Custacea), fly larvae (Family Simulidae), water scavenger beetles (Hydrophilidae) and tubificid worms are common invertebrates in the outflows of Banff and other BC thermal springs (Prichard 1971; Rice 2002a; Salter 2003; Lepitzki and Lepitzki 2003). Small invertebrates are prey for Vivid Dancer larvae. Adults consume small soft-bodied flying insects, such as mosquitoes (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014), mayflies, flies and small moths and will also pick aphids and other small insects from vegetation (Lung and Sommer 2001).

Larvae of other odonate species have been recorded in the thermal springs at Banff, but most do not appear to complete their life cycle (see Pritchard 1980; Rice 2002a; Hornung and Pacas 2006). Numerous native Odonate adults have also been recorded within Vivid Dancer habitat (see Rice 2002a; Harris and Foster 2013).

Vivid Dancer larvae are likely eaten by fish, amphibians, and possibly waterfowl. Adults are prey to robber flies (Family Asilidae) (Johnson 2013), dragonflies, spiders, amphibians, and birds.

Top of Page


Population Sizes and Trends

Sampling Effort and Methods

Most Vivid Dancer observations have been opportunistic and data collected during general Odonata surveys where presence, relative abundance, survey duration (e.g., person-hours) or area (e.g., number of metres of stream) is recorded. These surveys are not comparative. Because adult activity is partially dependent on weather and adults typically disperse in the surrounding forest, counts at breeding pools likely underestimate abundance and repeated null surveys are required to confirm the absence of Vivid Dancers from a site. See Appendix 1 for Vivid Dancer records in Canada.

The only Vivid Dancer population study was completed at a site in the Banff thermal springs (see Hornung and Pacas 2006) and used a combination of mark-recapture, larval surveys, and visual observations to estimate the population size (see Abundance). Kortello and Ham (2010) also used similar methods to examine movement and habitat selection at Banff.

Abundance

Vivid Dancer population studies at Middle Springs and the Cave & Basin Springs; Banff (see Hornung and Pacas 2006) marked 549 and recaptured 35 adults from July 6 to August 17, 2003. The adult subpopulations at these sites were estimated at 3612 for Middle Springs and 1535 for the Cave & Basin Springs. Higher numbers (catch per unit effort) of Vivid Dancer larvae were also detected at Middle Springs compared to the Cave & Basin Springs (Hornung and Pacas 2006). A subsequent mark-recapture study in 2005 captured 1473 adult Vivid Dancers over 15 days of sampling in July-August at the Cave & Basin Springs and Middle Springs, with an estimated total population of 1936 to 18,780 adults (Ham and Kortello 2005).

Numerous Vivid Dancer exuviae were collected from Middle Spring Bog (Banff), indicating this as a breeding site in addition to Cave & Basin Springs and Middle Springs (Hornung and Pacas 2006). The population of Vivid Dancer at Banff is thought to be much larger than those estimated for BC sites (Cannings pers. comm. 2013).

Fluctuations and Trends

Site populations and trends are unknown for all Vivid Dancer sites. Most survey data are not comparable among years or sites due to differences in survey methods and differences in the cumulative impacts from commercial development and recreational use.

Rescue Effect

Rescue from Vivid Dancer populations in the United States is unlikely given the species’ limited dispersal ability. The nearest Vivid Dancer sites to the Okanagan Valley (BC) are in the Okanogan or Pend Oreille counties in Washington State, at least 105 km south of the known occurrence at White Lake. The northernmost Vivid Dancer site south of the Kootenay region is in Idaho, approximately 250 km from the Canadian border (Romin pers. comm. 2014).

Top of Page


Threats and Limiting Factors

The International Union for Conservation of Nature-Conservation Measures Partnership (2006) (IUCN-CMP) threats calculator was used to classify and list threats to Vivid Dancer (Salafsky et al. 2008; Master et al. 2009). The overall Threat Impact is Medium (Table 3).

Table 3. Threat classification for Vivid Dancer in Canada. The threat classification below is based on the IUCN-CMP (World Conservation Union–Conservation Measures Partnership) unified threats classification system (see Master et al. 2009).

Species Name:
Vivid Dancer, Argia vivida
Date:
April 2, 2014.
Assessor(s):
Rob Foster (report author), Allan Harris (report author), Jennifer Heron (Arthropods SSC Co-chair), Dwayne Lepitzki (Alberta), Angele Cyr (COSEWIC Secretariat), Syd Cannings (Canadian Wildlife Service), Rob Cannings (Royal BC Museum), Patrick Nantel (Parks Canada), Dave Fraser (BC Ministry of Environment) , Leah Ramsay (BC Conservation Data Centre), Mark Taylor (Parks Canada)
Overall Threat Impact Calculation Help:
Threat ImpactThreat Impact (descriptions)Level 1 Threat Impact Counts:
high range
Level 1 Threat Impact Counts:
low range
AVery High00
BHigh00
CMedium55
DLow00
-Calculated Overall Threat Impact:Medium-
Threats Assessment Worksheet Table.
#ThreatImpact (calculated)Scope(next 10 Yrs)Severity (10 Yrs or 3 Gen.)TimingComments
1Residential & commercial developmentDLowSmall (1-10%)Extreme - Serious
(31-100%)
High (Continuing)-
1.1Housing & urban areasDLowSmall (1-10%)Extreme - Serious
(31-100%)
High (Continuing)Six sites potentially impacted.
1.2Commercial & industrial areasNegligibleNegligible
(<1%)
Extreme - Serious
(31-100%)
High (Continuing)Seven sites potentially impacted.
1.3Tourism & recreation areasDLowSmall (1-10%)Extreme - Serious
(31-100%)
Moderate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)Six sites. Much development ongoing at places already developed, including boardwalks at Banff, expansion at other areas.
2Agriculture & aquacultureDLowRestricted - Small (1-30%)Moderate - Slight
(1-30%)
High (Continuing)-
2.1Annual & perennial non-timber crops----Not applicable. No threats from vineyard or agricultural development.
2.2Wood & pulp plantations----Not applicable.
2.3Livestock farming & ranchingD
Low
Restricted - Small
(1-30%)
Moderate - Slight
(1-30%)
High (Continuing)Three sites. Cattle and horse ranching impact sites in the Okanagan Valley, with Kearns Creek, Okanagan Falls, and other sites potentially impacted (Cannings and Cannings 1998, Cannings 2002). Watering of livestock in cool springs and associated streams tramples riparian vegetation and increases sedimentation and nutrient inputs from dung, and reduce habitat suitability for Vivid Dancer.
2.4Marine & freshwater aquaculture----Not applicable.
3Energy production & miningUnknownSmall
(1-10%)
UnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)-
3.1Oil & gas drilling----Not applicable.
3.2Mining & quarrying----Not applicable.
3.3Renewable energyUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)One site. Proposed geothermal power development near South Meager Creek.
4Transportation & service corridorsD
Low
Small (1-10%)Slight
(1-10%)
Moderate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)-
4.1Roads & railroadsD
Low
Small (1-10%)Slight
(1-10%)
High (Continuing)Four sites. Road building is a possible threat at Okanagan Falls (Skaha Lake areas). Road kill may be a secondary threat at sites near busy roads (e.g., Banff, Fairmont). Two on east side of Skaha Creek, up on Mount Kobau is right beside a road; these sites are next to roads. Kearns creek is not threatened by road development. Road kill is happening now so it’s high.
4.2Utility & service lines----Not applicable.
4.3Shipping lanes----Not applicable.
4.4Flight paths----Not applicable.
5Biological resource useUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)-
5.1Hunting & collecting terrestrial animals----Not applicable.
5.2Gathering terrestrial plants----Not applicable.
5.3Logging & wood harvestingUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)One site.
5.4Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources----Not applicable.
6Human intrusions & disturbanceD
Low
Restricted
(11-30%)
Slight
(1-10%)
High (Continuing)-
6.1Recreational activitiesD
Low
Restricted
(11-30%)
Slight
(1-10%)
High (Continuing)Applicable at 16 sites. Recreational users alter thermal springs sites by diverting water, creating pools and continued use of thermal springs for bathing.
6.2War, civil unrest & military exercises---- Not applicable.
6.3Work & other activitiesNegligibleSmall (1-10%)Negligible (<1%)High (Continuing)Ongoing research at Banff Springs; access to these sites requires permits though so this is not likely a high impact.
7Natural system modificationsD
Low
Small (1-10%)Slight
(1-10%)
High (Continuing)-
7.1Fire & fire suppressionNegligibleSmall
(1-10%)
Negligible (<1%)Moderate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)Thinning activities at Banff Springs park
7.2Dams & water management/useDLowSmall
(1-10%)
Slight
(1-10%)
High (Continuing)Four sites. Four different springs at Cave basin in Banff, some flow into pipes, into valves and get clogged up and in the past some of the outflow streams, some go dry and the water comes back, nymph dries out some years,
7.3Other ecosystem modifications----Unknown impacts. Invasive fish eat the damselfly larvae and they can modify the habitat too.
8Invasive & other problematic species & genesUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)-
8.1Invasive non-native/alien speciesUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Overall unknown impacts. People potentially putting fish in some habitats.
8.2Problematic native speciesUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)High numbers of elk have happened at Madeline Lake (Max lake is the local name), this site may have been grown over from natural vegetation succession. This is unknown. Unclear about original habitat before the human modifications took place.
8.3Introduced genetic material----Not applicable.
9PollutionUnknownRestricted
(11-30%)
UnknownHigh (Continuing)-
9.1Household sewage & urban waste waterUnknownRestricted (11-30%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Swimming is restricted in the Banff springs areas; salt not using next to the basin and not used in the boardwalks over these outflow streams; salt is used in access roads and then taking over outflow streams. Unknown of how this impacts water quality.
9.2Industrial & military effluentsUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Chlorinated water at the upper springs in Banff - if we had consistent water supply.
9.3Agricultural & forestry effluentsUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Two sites. Chemical leaching from surface water runoff (e.g., fertilizers and pesticides from lawns, oil and sediments from roads) is a potential threat at developed sites (e.g., Fairmont Hot Springs). Recreational infrastructure is the potential source of the chemical (boardwalk board walk leaching). Site in southern Okanagan likely affected, the Skaha Lake ones may be impacted (northern one at the very least), from above and a ways off, it would be more from oil and road scum, the sites in Summerland (Crescent beach one), coming from Orchards, not sure about ones in Fraser Canyon.
9.4Garbage & solid waste----Not applicable.
9.5Air-borne pollutants----Not applicable.
9.6Excess energy----Not applicable.
10Geological eventsNegligibleNegligible (<1%)Moderate (11-30%)High (Continuing)-
10.1Volcanoes----Not applicable.
10.2 Earthquakes/tsunamisUnknownUnknownUnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)Earthquakes cause water to stop flowing, Seismic activity can affect spring groundwater sources. Although fault activity is not easily predictable, a seismic shift that reduces or stops groundwater flows at a spring could cause local extirpation of Vivid Dancer sites.
10.3 Avalanches/landslidesUnknownUnknownUnknownModerate (Possibly in the short term, < 10 yrs)Three sites. Thermal springs are small-scale ecosystems with rare microclimatic conditions dependent on local geothermal activity (COSEWIC 2008). Landslides bury springs and pools, as occurred at Ram Valley in 2011, although the population has persisted at that site (Harris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013).
11Climate change & severe weatherUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)-
11.1 Habitat shifting & alteration----Not applicable.
11.2 DroughtsUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Two examples in Banff of a spring drying and then the population coming back in the next ten years.
11.3 Temperature extremes----Not applicable.
11.4 Storms & floodingUnknownSmall (1-10%)UnknownHigh (Continuing)Flooding can adversely affect populations, although impacts are unknown.

Top of Page

Residential and commercial development (1.)

Housing and urban areas (1.1)

BC: Land pressures may threaten sites (including undocumented cool springs) in the Okanagan Valley, as remaining natural habitats in the southern Okanagan Valley are under increasing threat from urban growth and agriculture (Bezener et al. 2004; COSEWIC 2012). This threat does not apply to other thermal springs in BC.

AB: Residential development threatened habitat quality at Middle Springs Bog in Banff, AB (Marsh 1974; Hornung and Pacas 2006) but a comparison of GoogleEarth imagery from 2001 and 2009 showed no change in residential development near the bog. The area is part of the Middle Springs Wildlife Closure, a 500 m-wide band of forest above the Middle Springs housing development that is legally closed to people to protect part of the Sulphur Mountain wildlife corridor (Parks Canada 2015).

Commercial and industrial areas (1.2)

Commercial development has altered habitat at Albert Canyon, Fairmont, Halcyon, Nakusp, and Banff (Upper Hot Springs, Cave & Basin Springs) and may have eliminated a historical population at Radium springs (Cannings 2002). Vivid Dancer appears to coexist with commercial (e.g., hotel and bathing facilities) development if thermal spring sources, free-running outflow streams and adjacent forest is retained (Cannings et al. 2000).

BC: At Fairmont there is a commercial development (Figure 6), but at the spring source, mossy pools and free-running streams have been retained and Vivid Dancers continue to breed (Cannings pers. comm. 2011).

Figure 6. Outflow from tufa mound at Fairmont Hot Springs where three adult Vivid Dancers were observed on July 21, 2013. Looking upstream (east) to Indian Wells.
Outflow from tufa mound at Fairmont Hot Springs
Photograph by Rob Foster.
Long description for Figure 6

Photo of outflow from a tufa mound at Fairmont Hot Springs, where three adult Vivid Dancers were observed on July 21, 2013.

Top of Page

The outflow at Albert Canyon has also been diverted, but damselflies are present where the stream is still flowing through mossy areas (Cannings pers. comm. 2011).

Diversion of water for the bathing facilities at Nakusp and Fairmont likely has an impact on habitat quality at these sites (Foster pers. obs. 2013).

AB: Rice (2001) initially noted minimal immediate threats to Banff Vivid Dancer sites; however, more recent habitat destruction from water diversion and urban development has occurred (Hornung and Pacas 2006; Lepitzki and Pacas 2010).

The replacement of a rubber pool liner at Cave & Basin NHS breeding habitat (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014) has been planned for many years (Olson and Olson 2003), but the design has yet to be finalized. Construction associated with the pool liner replacement could also affect outflow streams below the buildings at the Cave and Basin NHS because water from the Upper and Lower Cave & Basin Springs, including from the lined pool, flows through a series of pipes and exits into Vivid Dancer habitat.

Agriculture and aquaculture (2)

Livestock farming and ranching (2.3)

BC: Cattle and horse ranching affect sites in the Okanagan Valley, with Kearns Creek, Okanagan Falls, and other sites potentially impacted (Cannings and Cannings 1998; Cannings 2002). Watering of livestock in cool springs and associated streams tramples riparian vegetation and increases sedimentation and nutrient inputs from dung and urine. This is thought to reduce habitat suitability for Vivid Dancer, but impacts have not been directly demonstrated and Vivid Dancers appear to be persisting at the heavily trampled Kearn’s Creek site. This threat could potentially affect numerous undocumented sites at cool springs in the Okanagan Valley, Lytton, and elsewhere.

Nutrient inputs from watering livestock are a secondary threat for some Vivid Dancer sites in BC.

AB: Horse excrement from trails near the Cave and Basin NHS and Middle Springs Bog at Banff could potentially affect water quality.

Energy production and mining (3)

Renewable energy (3.3)

BC: Proposed geothermal power development near South Meager Creek threatens this site. Ram Power has an operating demonstration plant there, the first of its kind in Canada (CanGEO 2013; EnergyBC 2013). The impacts on the hydrogeology of Meager Creek and Vivid Dancer sites are unknown, but altered spring water discharge could threaten Vivid Dancer sites.

Transportation and service corridors (4)

Roads and railroads (4.1)

BC: Road building is a primary threat at Okanagan Falls (Cannings pers. comm. 2011). Road kill may be a secondary threat at sites near Fairmont, and on the east side of Skaha Lake in the Okanagan, but overall impacts are negligible.

AB: Road kill may be a secondary threat near busy roads through Banff, but overall effects are negligible.

Biological resource use (5)

Logging and wood harvesting (5.1)

BC: Clearcut logging threatens a small number of crown land sites. Wilson Lake thermal springs have been severely degraded by mechanical damage and siltation from logging equipment (Salter 2003; Salter pers. comm. 2014). Both Kearns Creek and Okanagan Falls are threatened by logging, forestry thinning, and road building (Cannings pers. comm. 2011). Partial cuts for pre-commercial thinning do not appear to threaten Vivid Dancer: adults often bask on open ground or low vegetation (see 7.1 Fire and fire suppression).

Human intrusions and disturbance (6)

Recreational activities (6.1)

BC: Modification of natural thermal springs by bathers is a primary threat at all sites: removing native riparian vegetation, moving rocks, adjusting flows to achieve desired bathing temperatures, and lining pools with plastic, wood, or concrete structures, contribute to habitat degradation (Figure 8). At Ram Creek, bathers rebuilt pools by lining them with plastic after a recent landslide, altering the substrate and vegetation (Foster and Harris pers. obs. 2013) (Figure 9). These changes could damage habitat for Vivid Dancer larvae, particularly during sensitive winter months or low water periods. Preferred bathing temperatures are higher than tolerated by larval Vivid Dancers and aquatic vegetation is required for oviposition sites and cover.

Figure 7. Lower Cave & Basin Springs (Billy’s Pond), Cave and Basin National Historic Site, Banff, AB July 19, 2013. This is the pool with the rubber liner to be replaced. .
Lower Cave and Basin Springs
Photograph by Rob Foster
Long description for Figure 7

Photo of a section of boardwalk and pool at Lower Cave and Basin Springs, Cave and Basin National Historic Site, Banff, Alberta.

Top of Page

Figure 8. Wild Horse Warm Springs, July 22, 2013 looking west (downstream) from pool made by recreational users.
Wild Horse Warm Springs
Photograph by Rob Foster.
Long description for Figure 8

Photo of Wild Horse Warm Springs, looking downstream from a pool made by recreational users. Rocks border the downstream side of the pool.

Top of Page

Figure 9. Ram Hot Springs, July 22, 2013, looking east.
Ram Hot Springs
Photograph by Rob Foster.
Long description for Figure 9

Photo of Ram Hot Springs, looking east, where bathers have rebuilt pools by lining them with plastic after a recent landslide, altering the substrate and vegetation.

Top of Page

Backcountry thermal springs are well publicized in several detailed field guides (e.g., McDonald 1981; Litton 2005; Woodsworth 2009) and numerous websites, and cumulative recreational use, although much less frequent than accessible sites, impacts habitat.

Cool springs such as those in the Okanagan Valley are less likely to be impacted by recreational use.

AB: Banff sites receive thousands of visitors during the summer months (Hornung and Pacas 2006), with the Cave and Basin NHS receiving more than 100,000 annual visitors (Parks Canada 2007) with future plans to triple annual visitation to Cave and Basin NHS by 2013-2014 (Parks Canada 2010).

Vivid Dancer adults perched on boardwalks (Figure 7) risk trampling by visitors (as observed by Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014) and frequent human disturbance could affect courtship behaviour and oviposition. Despite boardwalks, barrier fencing and signage, human and dog footprints are associated with trampled riparian vegetation along the outlet streams and pools at Banff (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010). A heavily used horse trail also bisects the outflow streams at the Cave and Basin NHS.

Swimming is not permitted at Banff Springs Snail sites and is prevented by surveillance, fencing and signage (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010). Despite these efforts, illegal swimming continues and could potentially impact co-occurring Vivid Dancers.

Natural System Modification (9)

Fire and fire suppression (9.1)

AB: Selective harvest, thinning and partial cuts to reduce fuel loads at Banff do not appear to have impacted sites (see Kortello and Ham 2010). In order to maintain Vivid Dancer breeding habitat quality during fuel reduction in Banff, treatments recommended a mosaic of small (i.e., <50 m across), cleared areas be interspersed with intact forest rather than a uniformly thinned forest (Kortello and Ham 2010)

Invasive and other problematic species and genes (8)

Invasive non-native/alien species (8.1)

BC and AB: In California, the non-native wasp Polistes dominula (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed preying upon a Vivid Dancer (Macmillan 2007) and this species is becoming more widespread in BC and potentially AB (Copley pers. comm. 2014).

Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) have been widely introduced in Vivid Dancer’s range in Canada (Scott and Crossman 1973), including Rosebud Lake and possibly Albert Canyon. Their impacts on Vivid Dancers are unknown but, as with other non-native fish species, introduced trout could predate directly upon Vivid Dancer larvae or compete with them for invertebrate prey.

AB: In 1924, Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) were introduced at Banff Cave & Basin Springs to control mosquito populations. Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna), Green Swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri), Convict Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum), African Jewelfish (Hemichromis bimaculatus) and Freshwater Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) have been introduced by aquarists (Acorn 2004), although only the mollies and jewelfish persist (Parks Canada 2014). These non-native fish contributed to the extinction of the endemic Banff Longnose Dace (Lanteigne 1987) and are abundant in Billy’s Pond at the Lower Cave & Basin Springs (Foster pers. obs. 2013; Harris pers. obs. 2013), in all the outflow streams at the Cave and Basin NHS and in the Cave & Basin Marsh (Lepitzki pers. obs.). Significantly higher Vivid Dancer larvae numbers occur in the Middle Springs (no non-native fish present) than at the Cave & Basin Springs where non-native fish are present (Rice 2002a; Hornung and Pacas 2006).

Pollution (9)

Household sewage and urban waste water (9.1)

BC and AB: Shampoos, soaps, suntan products, deodorants and insect repellents from bathers may threaten flora and fauna (Kroeger 1988; Lee and Ackerman 1999; Lepitzki and Pacas 2010; COSEWIC 2008). Significant alterations in water chemistry have been detected at Banff thermal springs following swimming events (Lepitzki 1998, 1999) and swimming can alter water clarity and water levels. The cumulative impacts on Vivid Dancers or their prey in outlet streams are unknown, however. Elsewhere in its global range, Vivid Dancer has been observed in flowing irrigation canals (Paulson 2009) so the species may be tolerant of some altered water quality.

Industrial and military effluents (9.2)

BC: Chlorine is used at commercial hot springs (e.g., Fairmont) but impacts on Vivid Dancers have not been documented (at least some habitat at Fairmont is above commercial outflows).

Runoff from roadways has the potential to affect Vivid Dancer habitat at Halcyon Hot Springs as well.

AB: Chlorine pollution from the historical bathhouse at the Cave & Basin Springs at Banff was partially responsible for the extinction of the Banff Longnose Dace (Lanteigne 1987; Schindler 2000). Vivid Dancer subpopulations in the marsh may have been impacted from chlorine pollution in the past, but this source of water pollution at the Cave and Basin NHS has ceased for over a decade (it is no longer used as a commercial hot spring), and unlike the dace, there were adjacent sites to serve as a source for recolonization. Chlorine is used at other sites in Banff.

The use of chemical de-icers along the Basin Spring pool boardwalk stopped in about 1999 (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010). Salt is still used for de-icing along Banff roadways, including the roads whose runoff flows into the Middle Springs Bog and Vermilion Cool Springs, but the effects on Vivid Dancers are undocumented.

Agricultural and forestry effluents (9.3)

BC: Chemical leaching from surface water runoff (e.g., fertilizers and pesticides from lawns, oil and sediments from roads) is a potential threat at developed sites (e.g., Fairmont Hot Springs). Sites in the southern Okanagan (e.g., near Skaha Lake, Summerland) are likely affected from oily or otherwise contaminated runoff from upstream although direct impacts on Vivid Dancers or their prey have not been observed.

Geological Events (10)

Earthquakes and tsunamis and 10.3 Avalanches and landslides (10.2)

BC: Thermal springs are small-scale ecosystems with rare microclimatic conditions dependent on local geothermal activity (COSEWIC 2008). Geological events such as avalanches, landslides, and earthquakes threaten many Vivid Dancer sites. Landslides bury springs and pools, as occurred at Ram Valley in 2011, although the species has persisted at that site (Foster and Harris pers. obs. 2013). The Meager Creek area is very active geologically and in 2010 experienced the largest recorded landslide in Canadian history at over 48,000,000 m3 (Guthrie et al. 2012); fortunately, the landslide did not affect Vivid Dancer site. Seismic activity can affect spring groundwater sources. Although fault activity is not easily predictable, a seismic shift that reduces or stops groundwater flows at a spring could cause local extirpation of Vivid Dancer sites.

Climate change and severe weather (11)

Droughts (11.2)

The thermal spring hydrogeology of Canadian Vivid Dancer sites is based on meteoric water circulating to depth, being heated, and then flowing back to the surface (Grasby and Hutcheon 2001). Climate change, particularly an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme droughts, decreased precipitation and increased mean annual temperatures, is a potential threat to the water supply dynamics of thermal springs.

AB: There are five examples in Banff of springs drying then Vivid Dancers reusing the habitat once flows resumed (Upper Hot, Kidney, Upper Middle, Middle West Cave, Gord’s Spring) (Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014) so recolonization is possible if there are adjacent unaffected subpopulations.

Extremely low precipitation years may be the cause for the recent reduced flows at some Banff thermal springs (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002) and continued flow anomalies may be expected due to climate change (Scott and Suffling 2000). Flow rates typically decrease during late winter and early spring as underground reservoirs are depleted of water (Van Everdingen 1970, 1972; Grasby and Lepitzki 2002), but there is evidence that flow stoppages are increasing. The Upper Hot Spring ceased flowing every winter from 1998 through to 2005 and flow stoppages have also been recently documented from Kidney, Upper Middle, and Gord’s springs (Grasby and Lepitzki 2002; Lepitzki and Pacas 2010 and references therein). Since 1996, the Upper Hot Spring has ceased to flow in 14 of 19 years (COSEWIC 2008; Lepitzki and Lepitzki unpubl. data 1996-2014). Prior to 1998, the Upper Hot Spring is known to have run dry only once, in 1923 (Elworthy 1926; Warren 1927), and it was the only thermal spring in Banff that was known to have dried. The increased frequency of drying and addition of used public bathing facility water contaminated with chlorine and diatomaceous earth suggest that the Upper Hot Spring could be more of a sink than source of Vivid Dancers. As thermal spring drying typically occurs over winter, the aquatic larvae that will produce the next generation of adult Vivid Dancers are the life stage that is affected.

Number of Locations

There are 22 locationsFootnote 1 for Vivid Dancer in Canada (Appendix 1). Springs were grouped into locations based on proximity and vulnerability to stochastic events such as droughts, seismic activity, and landslides.

The Sulphur Mountain thermal springs at Banff share similar geology and human use threats and is considered one location, with the more distant and undeveloped Forty Mile Creek site considered a separate location. The Okanagan springs are threatened primarily by livestock grazing (e.g., cattle congregate at springs) and development. The Albert Canyon, Fairmont, Nakusp, and Halcyon sites were each assigned to a separate location based on threats of potential habitat changes caused by commercial hot spring operations. The remaining sites were assigned to locations based on a combination of less well-defined threats including recreational use.

Limiting Factors

Suitable thermal spring habitat limits Vivid Dancer in Canada. At lower elevations, cool springs and adjacent streams appear to be suitable habitat for Vivid Dancers. However, these habitats are also within regions of BC that have the highest recorded ambient summer temperatures, and these springs are overall uncommon and within valley bottoms with high development pressure. Relatively poor dispersal ability of adults may also be a limiting factor.

Top of Page


Protection, Status and Ranks

Legal Protection and Status

The federal National Parks Act protects Vivid Dancer individuals in Banff National Park. There are no additional federal or provincial laws that protect the species.

Non-Legal Status and Ranks

Global status rank: G5 (Secure) (Natureserve 2013)

Canada national status rank: N2 (Imperilled) (Natureserve 2013)

BC subnational rank: S2 (Red-listed; Imperilled) (British Columbia Conservation Data Centre 2014)

Alberta subnational rank: S1 (Critically Imperilled) (NatureServe 2013)

US national rank: N5 (Secure).

Washington, Utah and Colorado subnational rank: S5 (Secure)

Montana subnational rank: S4 (Apparently Secure)

All other states with confirmed occurrence records: Status not ranked (SNR) (NatureServe 2013).

Habitat Protection and Ownership

Vivid Dancer occurs on a variety of land tenures (Table 1).

Federal ownership:

Vivid Dancer sites within Banff National Park are protected under the federal National Parks Act. Several sites are also within the Cave and Basin NHS, which are managed to preserve commemorative integrity (Parks Canada 1998, 2007) in accordance with the Management Plan of the site and Commemorative Integrity Statement (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010). Some sections of Cave & Basin springs, Middle Springs, and the entire Kidney Spring are identified as critical habitat for Banff Springs Snail (Lepitzki and Pacas 2010) under the federal Species at Risk Act and indirectly protect co-occurring Vivid Dancer habitat. For example, the Sulphur Mountain Wildlife Corridor (Upper and Lower Middle, West Cave, and Gord’s Spring) has been established, permanently closed to unauthorized persons and enforced through regular patrols and electronic surveillance. Illegal swimming at the Basin Spring pool and Cave Spring pool has been reduced through signage, fencing, installation of a security system, and prosecution of trespassers.

At Fairmont Hot Springs, critical habitat identified under SARA for Southern Maidenhair Fern may provide protection for Vivid Dancer habitat located downstream of the access road as well.

There is little or no habitat protection at other Vivid Dancer sites. Even in provincial protected areas there is little monitoring or active management of spring habitats. For example, even though Ram Creek hot springs are in an ecological reserve (British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection 2004), they have been heavily modified by bathers without respect for potential damage to red-listed Vivid Dancer habitat (Salter 2003).

Top of Page


Acknowledgements and Authorities Contacted

The report writers wish to thank Jennifer Heron for supervising this report, as well as Angele Cyr (COSEWIC Secretariat). Dwayne Lepitzki, Drajs Vujnovic, and Andrea Kortello were particularly helpful providing data on Banff sites, particularly Dwayne who provided extensive personal data on sites and threats at Banff. Syd Cannings, Rob Cannings, David Fraser, Jennifer Heron and Leah Ramsay shared information on BC sites. John Swann was particularly helpful providing data from Vivid Dancer specimens at the University of Calgary. Thank you to COSEWIC Arthropod Specialist Subcommittee members Rob Cannings, Syd Cannings and Colin Jones for report review.

Authorities Contacted

Beckemeyer, Roy. Private Entomologist, Wichita KS.

Brett, Bob. Forest Ecologist, Snowline Research, Whistler, BC.

Cannings, Robert. Curator Emeritus of Entomology, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

Cannings, Syd. Species at Risk Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Whitehorse, YT.

Cartier, Aubrey. Zoologist, Saskatchewan Data Centre, Saskatoon, SK.

Chaney, Allison. Biologist, Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Department of Conservation & Natural Resources, Carson City, NV.

Copley, Claudia. Senior Entomology Collections Manager, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

Dyer, Orville. Ecosystems Biologist, Ministry of Natural Resource Operations, Penticton, BC.

Fleckenstein, John. Zoologist, Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

Fraser, David F. Species Conservation Science Unit Head, Ministry of Environment, BC.

Fritz, Mike. Zoologist, Nebraska Natural Heritage Program Lincoln, NE.

Gaines, Eleanor. Zoology Project Manager, Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center/Information Office of the Oregon Natural Resources Institute, Portland, OR.

Gall, Mike. Conservation Specialist-BC Parks. Kootenay Section Office–Cranbrook. Kootenay Okanagan Region, Cranbrook, BC.

Gelling, Lea. Zoologist, BC Conservation Data Centre, Victoria, BC.

Heimerl, Casey. Wildlife Biologist/Database Manager, South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, SD.

Heron, Jennifer. Invertebrate Conservation Specialist. BC Ministry of Environment, Vancouver, BC.

Humphries, Shelley. Aquatics Specialist, Banff, Yoho and Kootenay National Parks, Field, BC.

Hutchings, Gordon. Independent entomologist, Comox, BC.

Johnson, Kristine. Director / Zoology Coordinator, Natural Heritage New Mexico, Dept. of Biology, University of New Mexico. Albuquerque, NM.

Johnson, Jim. Private odonatologist, Vancouver, WA.

Jones, Neil. Scientific Project Officer & ATK Coordinator, COSEWIC Secretariat, Environment Canada, Gatineau QC.

Knopp, Dennis. BC’s Wild Heritage Consulting, Sardis, BC.

Kortello, Andrea. Consulting Biologist. Nelson, BC.

Lepitzki, Dwayne. Consulting Biologist, Banff, AB.

Maxell, Bryce A. Senior Zoologist, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.

Oliver, George. Research Zoologist , Utah Natural Heritage Program, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT.

Ramsay, Leah. Program Zoologist, BC Conservation Data Centre, Ministry of Environment, Victoria BC.

Romin, Suzin. Zoologist, Idaho Natural Heritage Program, Boise, ID.

Salter, Sue. Principal, Cordillera Consulting, Summerland, BC.

Sheffield, Cory. Invertebrate Curator, Royal Saskatchewan Museum, Regina, SK.

Schmidt, Cecilia, Wildlife Data Specialist, Arizona Heritage Data Management System, Arizona Game & Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

Sovell, John. Invertebrate Zoologist and Ecologist, Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

St. John, Dennis. Private Entomologist, Okanagan Falls, BC.

Stagliano, Dave. Aquatic Ecologist, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Helena, MT.

Stuart, James N. Wildlife biologist, New Mexico Department of Game & Fish, Santa Fe, NM.

Studer, Ben. Natural Heritage Program, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID.

Stuart, James M. Wildlife Biologist, Santa Fe, NM.

Tronstad, Lusha. Invertebrate Zoologist, Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

Vujnovic, Drajs. Parks Zoologist, Parks Ecology Program/ACIMS, Alberta Tourism, Parks & Recreation, Edmonton, AB.

Nantel, Patrick. Representative to COSEWIC, Office of the Chief Ecosystem Scientist, Parks Canada, Gatineau, QC.

Top of Page


Information Sources

Abbott, J.C. 2013. OdonataCentral: An online resource for the distribution and identification of Odonata. The University of Texas at Austin. [accessed December 2013].

Acorn, J. 2004. Damselflies of Alberta: Flying Neon Toothpicks in the Grass. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta. 156 pp.

British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Ram Creek Ecological Reserved management direction statement. 18 pp.

Bezener, A., M. Dunn, H. Richardson, O. Dyer, R. Hawes, and T. Hayes. 2004. South Okanagan-Similkameen Conservation Program: A multi-partnered, multi-species, multi-scale approach to conservation of species at risk (PDF; 79 KB). in T.D. Hooper (ed.). Proceedings of the Species at Risk 2004 Pathways to Recovery Conference. March 2–6, 2004, Victoria, BC Species at Risk 2004. 10 pp. [accessed January 2013].

Bick, G.H. and R.J. Beckemeyer. 1998. Checklist of Oklahoma odonata (dragonflies and damselflies). [accessed January 2013].

Bried J.T. and G.N.Ervin. 2006. Abundance patterns of dragonflies along a wetland buffer. Wetlands 26:878–883.

CanGEO (Candian Geothermal Energy Association). 2013. Meager Creek. Website: http://www.cangea.ca/projects/meagercreek/ [accessed December 2013].

Cannings, R.A. 2002. Introducing the Dragonflies of British Columbia and the Yukon. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. 96 pp.

Cannings, R.A. 2008. Checklist of the Odonata (Dragonflies and Damselflies) of British Columbia. Royal British Columbian Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. 5 pp.

Cannings, R.A. and S.G. Cannings 1998. Odonata (Damselflies and Dragonflies) of the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. Pp. 269-399 in G.G.E. Scudder and I.M. Smith, (eds.). Assessment of species diversity in the Montane Cordillera Ecozone. Burlington: Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network, Burlington, Ontario. Website: http://www.naturewatch.ca/eman/reports/publications/99_montane/odonata/intro.html [accessed January 2013].

Cannings, R.A., S.G. Cannings and L. Ramsay. 2000. The dragonflies (Insecta: Odonata) of the Columbia Basin, British Columbia: Field surveys, collections development and public education. Living Landscapes. Royal British Columbia Museum Columbia Basin projects [en anglais seulement]. [accessed January 2013].

Cannings, R.A., and K.M. Stuart. 1977. The dragonflies of British Columbia. Handbook 35, British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. 254 pp.

Cannings, R.J., D. St. John, and G. Hutchings. 1998. A survey of rare dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) in the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys. British Columbia Conservation Data Centre, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia. 22 pp.

Cannings, S.G.. 2013. Email correspondence to J. Heron. October 2013. Species at Risk Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory.

Copley, Claudia. 2014. Personal communication to Jennifer Heron. Senior Entomology Collections Manager, Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

Conrad, K.F. 1987. Complementary male and female mating strategies of Argia vivida Hagen (Odonata: Coenagrionidae): an example of a female-control mating system. M.Sc. thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 199 pp.

Conrad, K.F. and G. Pritchard. 1988. The mating behaviour of Argia vivida Hagen as an example of a female-control mating system (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 17:179-185.

Conrad, K.F. and G. Pritchard. 1989. Female dimorphism and physiological colour change in the damselfly Argia vivida Hagen (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:298-304.

Conrad, K.F. and G. Pritchard. 1990. Pre-oviposition mate guarding and mating behaviour of Argia vivida (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Ecological Entomology 15: 363-370.

Corbet P.S. 1999. Dragonflies: Behaviour and Ecology of Odonata. Cornell University Press, New York. 829 pp.

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2008. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Banff Springs Snail Physella johnsoni in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 54 pp.

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2011a. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Olive Clubtail Stylurus olivaceus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 58 pp.

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2011b. COSEWIC National Ecological Areas. [accessed November 2013.]

COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada). 2012. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Behr’s Hairstreak Satyrium behrii in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. 48 pp.

Elworthy, R.T. 1926. Hot springs in western Canada - their radioactive and chemical properties. Department of Mines, Mines Branch, Canada, Report 669. 33 pp.

Environment Canada. 2013. Recovery Strategy for the Southern Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum capillus-veneris) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 13 pp.

Fairbank, B.D., and Faulkner, R.L. 1992. Geothermal resources of British Columbia. Geologic Survey of Canada Open File 2526, map scale 1:2,000,000.

Foster S.E., and D.A. Soluk. 2006. Protecting more than the wetland: the importance of biased sex ratios and habitat segregation for conservation of the Hine’s emerald dragonfly, Somatochlora hineana Williamson. Biological Conservation 127:158–166

Gloyd, L.K. 1958. The dragonfly fauna of the Big Bend region of Trans-Pecos Texas. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 593:1-23.

Grasby, S.E., and I. Hutcheon. 2001. Controls on the distribution of thermal springs in the southern Canadian Cordillera. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38: 427–440.

Grasby, S.E., and D.A.W. Lepitzki. 2002. Physical and chemical properties of the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs, Banff National Park, and implications for endangered snails. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 39:1349-1361.

Guthrie, R. H., P. Friele, K. Allstadt, N. Roberts, S.G. Evans, K.B. Delaney, D. Roche, J.J. Clague, and M. Jakob, 2012. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 12:1277-1294.

Ham, S. and A. Kortello. 2005. Dispersal movements and corridor habitat for Argia vivida in Banff. Report submitted to Ian Pengelly, Fire and Vegetation Specialist, Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta. 11 pp.

Harris, A.G., and R.F. Foster. 2013. Summary of 2013 Field Surveys for Vivid Dancer (Argia vivida). Unpublished report for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 17 pp.

Hornung, C.L.R., and C. Pacas. 2006. Investigating damselfly populations at springs in Banff National Park, Canada with special focus on Argia vivida, Amphiagrion abbreviatum, and Ischnura cervula (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Aquatic Ecology 40(1): 49-58.

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Conservation Measures Partnership (IUCN and CMP). 2006. IUCN – CMP unified classification of direct threats, ver. 1.0 – June 2006. Gland, Switzerland. 17 pp. [accessed January 2013]

Johnson, J. 2013. Photos of Argia vivida - Vivid Dancer. [accessed November 2013].

Kennedy, C.H. 1915. Notes on the life history and ecology of the dragonflies (Odonata) of Washing and Oregon. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 49:259-345.

Kirkton S.D. and T.D. Schultz. 2001. Age-specific behaviour and habitat selection of adult male damselflies, Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Calopterygidae). Journal of Insect Behaviour 14:545–556.

Kondratieff, B.C. (coordinator). 2000. Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of the United States. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online, Jamestown, North Dakota. Website: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/insects/dfly/index.htm [accessed January 2013].

Kortello, A.D., pers. comm. 2013. Email correspondence to R.F. Foster. December 2013. Consulting Biologist. Nelson, British Columbia.

Kortello, A.D., and S.J. Ham. 2010. Movement and habitat selection by Argia vivida (Hagen)(Odonata, Coenagrionidae) in a fuel-modified forest. Journal of Insect Conservation 14:133-140.

Krieger, M. 2003. The Banff springs snail project: a report of bryophyte richness and rarity. Report prepared for Parks Canada, Heritage Resource Conservation (Aquatics), Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta. 99 pp.

Kroeger, P. 1988. Meager Creek hotsprings study. Unpublished report. 36 pp.

Lanteigne, J. 1987. Status report on the Banff Longnose Dace Rhinichthys cataractae smithi. Report prepared for the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 20 pp.

Lee, J., and J.D. Ackerman. 1999. Status of the Hotwater Physa, Physella wrighti Te and Clarke 1985. Report prepared for the Committee on the Status of Wildlife in Canada Secretariat. 22 pp.

Leggott, M.A. and G. Pritchard. 1985a. The effect of temperature on rate of egg and larval development in populations of Argia vivida Hagen (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from habitats with different thermal regimes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63:2578-2581.

Leggott, M.A. and G. Pritchard. 1985b. The life cycle of Argia vivida Hagen: development types, growth ratios, and instar identification. Odonatolgica 14(3):201-210.

Leggott, M.A. and G. Pritchard. 1986. Thermal preferences and activity thresholds in populations of Argia vivida (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from habitats with different thermal regimes. Hydrobiologia 140:85-92

Lepitzki, D.A.W. 1998. The ecology of Physella johnsoni, the threatened Banff Springs snail. Final report (1997/98) prepared for Heritage Resource Conservation - Aquatics, Banff National Park. 4 July. 146 pp.

Lepitzki, D.A.W. 1999. The ecology of Physella johnsoni, the threatened Banff springs snail. Annual report (1998/99) prepared for Heritage Resource Conservation - Aquatics, Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta. 31 August. 301 pp.

Lepitzki, D.A.W., pers. comm. 2014. E-mail correspondence with R.F. Foster, January 2014. Consulting Biologist, Banff, Alberta.

Lepitzki, D.A.W., and Lepitzki, B.M. 2003. Preliminary resource reconnaissance of the invertebrates of some of Banff’s thermal springs. Draft final report prepared for Heritage Resource Conservation (Aquatics), Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta. 33 pp.

Lepitzki, D.A.W., and B.M. Lepitzki. unpubl. data. 1996-2014. Incidental observations of odonates at selected thermal springs in Banff National Park during Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) research. Banff, Alberta.

Lepitzki, D.A.W., and C. Pacas. 2010. Recovery strategy and action plan for the Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Parks Canada Agency, Ottawa. vii + 63 pp.

Litton, E. 2005. Hiking Hot Springs in the Pacific Northwest, 4th Ed. Falcon Guides. Guilford, Connecticut. 314 pp.

Lung, M. and S. Sommer. 2001. Argia vivida (Vivid Dancer). Idaho Museum of Natural History. Website: http://imnh.isu.edu/digitalatlas/bio/insects/drgnfly/coenfam/arvi/arvifr.htm. [Accessed December 2013.].

Marsh A.H. 1974. The botany and natural history of Middle Springs Swamp, Banff, Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist 88: 129-140.

MacMillan, A.S. 2007. Polistes dominula vs. Argia vivida. [accessed December 2013].

Master, L., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Bittman, G.A. Hammerson, B. Heidel, J. Nichols, L. Ramsay, and A. Tomaino. 2009. Natureserve conservation status assessments: factors for assessing extinction risk. Natureserve, Arlington, VA. Website: http://www.natureserve.org/publications/ConsStatusAssess_StatusFactors.pdf [accessed May 2010].

McDonald, J. 1981. Hot Springs of Western Canada. Waterwheel Press, Vancouver.

Natureserve. 2013. Natureserve Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 6.1. Natureserve, Arlington, Virginia. Website: http://www.natureserve.org/explorer [accessed November 2013].

Olson and Olson Planning and Design Consultants. 2003. IRF (Interdepartmental Recovery Fund) Banff springs snail project. Final report presented to Parks Canada and Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service. 55 pp.

Osburn, R.C. 1905. The Odonata of British Columbia. Entomological News 16:184-196.

Parks Canada. 1998. Cave and Basin National Historic Site, Banff National Park, Commemorative Integrity Statement. 20 pp.

Parks Canada. 2007. Cave and Basin National Historic Site of Canada management plan. Pp. 58-65 in Parks Canada. Mountain Parks National Historic Site Management Plans. 82 pp. [accessed January 2013].

Parks Canada. 2010. Banff National Park of Canada management plan. Government of Canada. 175 pp.

Parks Canada. 2014. Banff National Park Aquatic Ecosystems. [accessed January 2014].

Parks Canada. 2015. Banff National Park Wildlife Corridors - A “Moving” Story. [accessed January 2015].

Paulson, D. 2009. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the West. Princeton Field Guides. Princeton, New Jersey. 535 pp.

Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 2012. A Checklist of North American Odonata Including English Name, Etymology, Type Locality, and Distribution (2012 ed.) (PDF; 1.06 MB). Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History. University of Puget Sound. 87 pp. [accessed January 2012].

Pritchard G. 1971. Argia vivida Hagen (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) in hot pools at Banff. Canadian Field Naturalist 85:187-188.

Pritchard, G. 1980. The life cycle of Argia vivida Hagen in the northern part of its range (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Odonatologica 9:101-106.

Pritchard, G., 1982. Life-history strategies in dragonfly and the colonization of North America by the genus Argia (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Advances in Odonatology 1:227-241.

Pritchard G. 1988. Dragonflies of the Cave and Basin Hot Springs, Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. Notulae Odonatologicae. 3:8-9.

Pritchard, G. 1989. The roles of temperature and diapause in the life history of a temperate-zone dragonfly: Argia vivida (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Ecological Entomology 14: 99-108.

Pritchard, G. 1991. Insects in thermal springs. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 155: 89-106.

Pritchard G. and A. Kortello. 1997. Roosting, perching, and habitat selection in Argia vivida Hagen and Amphiagrion abbreviatum (Selys) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae), two damselflies inhabiting geothermal springs. Canadian Entomologist 129:733-743.

Pritchard, G., and B. Pelchat. 1977. Larval growth and development of Argia vivida (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) in warm sulphur pools at Banff, Alberta. The Canadian Entomologist 109:1563-1570.

Renaud, C.B., and D.E. McAllister. 1988. Taxonomic status of the extinct Banff longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae smithi, of Banff National Park. Environmental Biology of Fishes 23(1-2):95-113.

Rice, C. 2001. Dragonflies and damselflies, 2000 preliminary status ranks for Alberta. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Edmonton. 78 pp.

Rice, C. 2002a. Odonates (dragonflies and damselflies) and other aquatic macroinvertebrates inhabiting thermal and cool springs in Banff National Park. Report prepared for Aquatics, Banff National Park, Banff, Alberta. 28 pp.

Rice, C. 2002b. Unpublished Argia vivida Vertebrate and Invertebrate Report Form. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre (now AB Conservation Data Centre).

Romin, S., pers. comm. 2014. Email correspondence with R.F. Foster, January 2014. Zoologist, Idaho Natural Heritage Program, Boise, Idaho.

Salafsky, N., D. Salzer, A.J. Stattersfield, C. Hilton-Taylor, R. Neugarten, S.H.M. Butchart, B. Collen, N. Cox, L.L. Master, S. O’Connor, and D. Wilkie. 2008. A standard lexicon for biodiversity conservation: unified classifications of threats and actions. Conservation Biology 22:897-911.

Salter, S.P. 2003. Invertebrates of selected thermal springs of British Columbia. Unpublished report for the Habitat Conservation Trust Fund, Victoria by Cordillera Consulting, Summerland, British Columbia. 90 pp.

Salter, S.P. pers. comm. 2014. Telephone conversation with R.F. Foster, January 2014. Principal, Cordillera Consulting, Summerland, British Columbia.

Schindler D.W. 2000. Aquatic problems caused by human activities in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. AMBIO 29:401-407.

Scott, W.B. and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

Scott, D., and R. Suffling, 2000. Climate change and Canada’s national park system: a screening level assessment. Parks Canada, Ottawa. 183 pp.

Scudder, G.G.E. 1996. Terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates of British Columbia: Priorities for inventory and descriptive research. Research Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Wildlife, Victoria, British Columbia. Working Paper 09/1996. 206 pp.

Selys-Longhchamps, E. de. 1865. Synopsis des agrionines, cinquième légion: Agrion. Bulletin de l’Académie royale des Sciences de Belgique (2) 20:373-417 (reprint 1-45).

Swann, J. pers. comm. 2014. E-mail correspondence with R.F. Foster, July 2014. Manager, Invertebrate Section, Museum of Zoology, University of Calgary, Alberta.

Van Everdingen, R.O. 1970. Seasonal variations, Sulphur Mountain hot springs, Banff, Alberta. Inland Waters Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources. Technical Bulletin 33:1-11.

Van Everdingen, R.O. 1972. Thermal and mineral springs in the southern Rocky Mountains of Canada. Water Management Service, Department of the Environment, Ottawa, Canada. 151 pp.

Walker, E.M. 1912. The Odonata of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. Canadian Entomologist 44:253-266.

Walker, E.M. 1927. The Odonata of the Canadian Cordillera. Bulletin Provincial Museum of Natural History. Victoria, British Columbia. 16 pp.

Walker, E.M. 1953. The Odonata of Canada and Alaska. Vol 1. Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 292 pp.

Warren, P.S. 1927. Banff area, Alberta. Geological Survey of Canada, Memorandum 153. 94 pp.

Westfall, J.G. Jr., and M.L. May. 1996. Damselflies of North America. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville, Florida. 659 pp.

Whitehouse, F.C.. 1941. British Columbia dragonflies (Odonata) with notes on distribution and habits. American Midland Naturalist 26:488-557.

Woodsworth, G. 1999. Hot Springs of Western Canada. A Complete Guide. Gordon Soules Book Publishers Ltd., West Vancouver, British Columbia. 288 pp.

Top of Page


Biographical Summary of Report Writers

Robert Foster is co-founder and principal of Northern Bioscience, an ecological consulting firm offering professional consulting services supporting ecosystem management, planning, and research. Dr. Foster has a B.Sc. in Biology from Lakehead University and a D. Phil in Zoology from the University of Oxford. Rob has worked as an ecologist in Ontario for over 20 years, and has authored or coauthored COSEWIC status reports on the Riverine Clubtail, Laura’s Clubtail, Rapids Clubtail, Gibson’s Big Sand Tiger Beetle, Northern Barrens Tiger Beetle, Powesheik Skipperling, Mormon Metalmark, Weidemeyer’s Admiral, Bogbean Buckmoth, Hop-tree Borer, Georgia Basin Bog Spider, Broad-banded Forestsnail, Nahanni Aster, Crooked-stem Aster, Bluehearts, and Drooping Trillium, as well as recovery plans for rare plants, lichens, and odonates. Rob has conducted numerous odonate surveys for protected areas planning and environmental assessments in Ontario, as well as Manitoba, Minnesota, Quebec, and British Columbia.

Allan Harris is a biologist with over 25 years’ experience in northern Ontario. He has a B.Sc. in Wildlife Biology from the University of Guelph and an M.Sc. in Biology from Lakehead University. After spending seven years as a biologist with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, he co-founded Northern Bioscience, an ecological consulting company based in Thunder Bay, Ontario. Al has authored or coauthored dozens of scientific papers, technical reports, and popular articles, including COSEWIC status reports for Riverine Clubtail, Laura’s Clubtail, Rapids Clubtail, Gibson’s Big Sand Tiger Beetle, Northern Barrens Tiger Beetle, Powesheik Skipperling, Mormon Metalmark, Weidemeyer’s Admiral, Bogbean Buckmoth, Hop-tree Borer, Georgia Basin Bog Spider, Broad-banded Forestsnail, Nahanni Aster, Crooked-stem Aster, Bluehearts, Drooping Trillium and Small-flowered Lipocarpha. Al also authored the Ontario provincial status report for woodland caribou, and has authored or coauthored national and provincial recovery strategies for vascular plants and birds.

Top of Page


Collections Examined

The following collections were examined for Canadian Vivid Dancer specimens:

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, ON (O. Lonsdale)
E.H. Strickland Entomological Museum, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (online search)
Wallis Roughley Museum of Entomology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. (B. Sharanowski)
Museum of Zoology, University of Calgary (J. Swann)
Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, AB. (M. Buck)
Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC. (online search)
Royal Saskatchewan Museum, Regina, SK. (C. Sheffield)
Spencer Entomological Collection, Beaty Biodiversity Museum, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC (K. Needham)

Top of Page

Appendix 1. Documented Vivid Dancer observations at Canadian sites and locationsNote g of Appendix 1.
LocationNote h of Appendix 1SiteDateObserversVivid Dancer NumbersNote i of Appendix 1Source
1Banff, (“swamp off Hot Springs Road”)1908-06-21N.D. Sanson1 teneral maleWalker 1912
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1979-08-01 & 1979-08-16G.E. Pritchard6 adultSwann, pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1979-12-01G.E. Pritchard--
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1979-12-01G.E. Pritchard1 imm.BC CDC 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1980-07-02R.A. Cannings1 adultBC CDC 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1980-07-02G.E. Pritchard2F adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1981-06-25G.E. Pritchard 1f, 1M in copuloSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1982-07-30G.E. Pritchard1F, 1M, 12U adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1982-08-30G.E. Pritchard 1F, 1M adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1985-07-17G.E. Pritchard2f, 3M adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)1985-07-26 & 1985-07-27G.E. Pritchard1F, 1 M adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)2013-07-19A.G. Harris, R.F. Foster4 adultsHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
1Banff, Cave and Basin NHS Springs (and associated outflows)2003-06-06 to
2003-08-17
C.L.R. Hornung and C. Pacas1535 estimated total adults for 3 sampling sitesHornung and Pacas 2006
1Cave & Basin Springs and Middle Springs15 days of sampling in July-August, 2005Ham and Kortellomark-recapture study captured 1473 adults and estimated total population of 1936 to 18,780 adultsHam and Kortello 2005
1Banff, Middle Springs
(Lower and Upper)
2003-06-06 to
2003-08-17
C.L.R. Hornung and C. Pacas3612 estimated total adults for 3 sampling sitesC.L.R. Hornung and C. Pacas
1Banff, Middle Springs
(Gord’s Spring and West Cave)
1996-2014
(exact years unknown)
D. Lepitzkilarvae and adultsLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Middle Springs Bog2003C.L.R. Hornung and C. Pacasexuviae collectedHornung and Pacas 2006
1Banff, above Middle Springs (Alpine Hut)2002D. Lepitzkiadult seen but no evidence of breedingRice 2002a,b
1Banff, Kidney SpringJuly 2 - August 29 2002C. Rice3 adultsRice 2002a,b
1Banff, Kidney Spring1996-2014
(exact years unknown)
D. Lepitzkilarvae and adults, 1 teneralLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Upper Hot Spring1996-2014
(exact years unknown)
D. Lepitzkilarvae and adultsLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
1Banff, Vermilion Cool Springs2002C. Riceadult Vivid Dancers have been observed in tandem ovipositing, but no evidence of breedingRice 2002b
2Banff, Forty Mile Creek2002-09-02C. Rice (det. D. Lepitzki)2 exuviae; 3 adults unknown sexLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
2Banff, Forty Mile Creek2006-07-28D. Lepitzkiexuviae and adultsLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
2Banff, Forty Mile Creek2013-07-28D. Lepitzkiexuviae and adultsLepitzki pers. comm. 2014
3Fieldpre-1953 E.M. Walker“locally abundant”Walker 1953
4Glacier1902R.C. Osburn1 adultWalker 1953
5BX Creek, Vernon2006BC MOElarvae, unknown #Salter pers. comm. 2014
6Albert Canyon1981-07-03G. Pritchard7F, 3M adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
6Albert Canyon1983-06-16G. Pritchard4 adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
6Albert Canyon1983-08-24G. Pritchard30 adultSwann pers. comm. 2014
6Albert Canyon1983-08-22R.A. Cannings1F,1M adultBC CDC 2014
6Albert Canyon1998-07-30S.G. Cannings2F adultCannings1998
6Albert Canyon28/07/1983G. Pritchard & M. Leggott436 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon01/10/1983G. Pritchard & M. Leggott226 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon25/04/1984G. Pritchard& M. Leggott750 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon26/04/1985G. Pritchard & M. Leggott67 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon26/05/1985G. Pritchard & M. Leggott50 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon09/06/1985G. Pritchard & M. Leggott60 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon11/10/1988G. Pritchard & M. Leggott40 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon06/06/1989G. Pritchard & M. Leggott34 larvaeJ. Swann
6Albert Canyon2013-07-20A.G. Harris, R.F. Fosternone observedHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
6Albert Canyon1985-07-10 to 1985-07-25K.F. Conrad, G. Pritchardnumerous males and females on multiple visitsConrad and Pritchard 1989
7Fairmont Hot Springs1991J. Zlotyvery few individuals seen, not associated with larval habitatBC CDC 2014
7Fairmont Hot Springs2013-07-22A.G .Harris, R.F. Foster2F, 5M adultHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
8Ram Creek Hot Springs1989-07-01J. Zlotys-BC MAWLP 2004
8Ram Creek Hot Springs1999-01-01S.P. Salter1 imm.BC CDC 2014
8Ram Creek Hot Springs1999-06-19D. Nicholson1F,3M adultBC CDC 2014
8Ram Creek Hot Springs2000-07-23S.P. Salter2 imm.BC CDC 2014
8Ram Creek Hot Springs2013-07-22A.G. Harris, R.F. Foster5+ adults at pool, and 12 adults along roadHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
8Ram Creek Hot Springs2000 to 2002S.P. Salterup to a total of 222 larvae collected at 3 sites in one day (Salter 2003).Salter 2003; BC CDC 2014
9Wild Horse Hot Springs Springs2000 to 2002S.P. Salter1-13 larvae at 2 sites during surveys on 3 dates in 2000 to 2002.Salter 2003; BC CDC 2014
9Wild Horse Hot Springs Springs2013-07-22A.G. Harris, R.F. Fosternone observedHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
10Little Sand Creek
(Sand Lake)
1999-07-30S.G. Cannings, L.R. Ramsayapprox. 20 observed on and around creekBC CDC 2014
10Little Sand Creek
(Sand Lake)
1999-08-11D. Nicholson1F,1M adultBC CDC 2014
10Little Sand Creek
(Sand Lake)
2013-07-21A.G. Harris, R.F. Fosternone observedHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
11Fort Steele1981-07-05R.A. Cannings1F adultBC CDC 2014
12Rosebud Lake1999-07-24D.C.A. Blades, K.A. Sendall1F adultBC CDC 2014
12Rosebud Lake2013-07-21A.G. Harris, R.F. Fosternone observedHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
13Dewar Creek2000-07-22 to 2001-08-15S.P. Salter15-30 nymphs at one site during 3 sampling dates; 0-1 nymphs at other site 35 m awaySalter 2003; BC CDC 2014
14Little Wilson Lake
(Wilson Creek; Fitzstubbs Cr.)
2013-07-20A.G. Harris, R.F. Fosternone observedHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
14Little Wilson Lake
(Wilson Creek; Fitzstubbs Cr.)
2000-07-24 to 2001-10-13S.P. Salter27-71 larvae at one site during 4 sampling dates; 15-76 larvae at other site 5 m awaySalter 2003; BC CDC 2014
15Nakusp Hot Springs1980-06-30R.A. Cannings1 imm.BC CDC 2014
15Nakusp Hot Springs2013-07-20A.G. Harris, R.F. Foster35 adults incl. 4 pairs in tandemHarris pers. obs. 2013; Foster pers. obs. 2013
15Nakusp Hot Springs1994-06S.G. Cannings, L.R. Ramsaymales and females observed and collectedBC CDC 2014
16Halcyon Hot Springs25/04/1984G. Pritchard & M. Leggott116 larvaeSwann pers. comm. 2014
16Halcyon Hot Springs25/06/1984G. Pritchard & M. Leggott100 larvaeSwann pers. comm. 2014
16Halcyon Hot Springs25/04/1985G. Pritchard & M. Leggott32 larvaeSwann pers. comm. 2014
16Halcyon Hot Springs1985-07-10 to 1985-07-25K.F. Conrad, G. Pritchardnumerous males and females on multiple visitsConrad and Pritchard 1989; Swann pers. comm. 2014
16Halcyon Hot Springs1986 -06-10 to 1986 -08-13K.F. Conrad, G. Pritchard, J. Zloty10-30+ adults on six visits, including at least 22 tandem pairs on August 13Conrad and Pritchard 1989; Swann pers. comm. 2014
17Kearns Creek (White Lake)1996-06-29R.A. Cannings1F adultBC CDC 2014
17Kearns Creek (White Lake)1997-07-15G.E. Hutchings, R.J. Cannings2F, 2M adultBC CDC 2014
17Okanagan Lake
(Penticton Yacht Club)
1997-07-04G.E. Hutchings, R.J. Cannings1F,3M adultBC CDC 2014
17Summerland
(Crescent Beach)
1997-07-09G.E. Hutchings1F adultCannings et al. 1998; BC CDC 2014
17Summerland
(Kevin Brook / Monro Ave. marsh)
1997-07-09G.E. Hutchings2F,4M adultCannings et al. 1998; BC CDC 2014
17Summerland
(Switchback Road)
2011-07-31S.G. Cannings<10 adults observed, some in tandemS.G. Cannings pers. comm.
17Skaha Lake1997-06-11D. St.John, R.J. Cannings1F, 4M adultCannings et al. 1998; BC CDC 2014
17Madeline Lake (Mac’s Lake)1983-08-24R.A. Cannings2F,4M adultBC CDC 2014
17Madeline Lake (Mac’s Lake)1997-08-16D. St. John3M adultCannings et al. 1998; BC CDC 2014
18Chopaka1997-07-21J. Terbasket, R.J. Cannings1F teneral, 1M adultBC CDC 2014
19Richter Pass (Mount Kobau)1991-07-11D.C.A. Blades, C.W. Maier1M adultBC CDC 2014
20Lytton, 2 km south of2007-06-29D. Knopp, J. Osterhold2F,15M adultBC CDC 2014
20Lytton, 4.25 km north of2007-06-29D. KnoppOne mating pair and a second maleBC CDC 2014
20Lytton, 8.9 km north of2007-07-14D. KnoppOne teneral seenBC CDC 2014
21Boston Bar2006-07-05D. Knopp12 adults, incl. 2 mating pairsBC CDC 2014
22Meager Creek1988-07-19C.S. Guppy, G.E. Hutchings, M.C.E. McNall8F, 24M adultBC CDC 2014
22Meager Creek1989-10-08G.E. Hutchings2F,2M adultBC CDC 2014
22Pebble Creek
(Lillooet River, Keyhole)
Hot Spring
2000-04 to 2002-05-18S.P. Salter32-58 larvae at Site 1 and 57-69 larvae at Site 2 during surveys on 3 dates in 2000 to 2002.Salter 2003; BC CDC 2014

Notes of Appendix 1

Note [g] of Appendix 1

Note that this appendix does not include the multiple observations by Lepitzki and Lepitzki (unpublished data 1996-2014).

Return to note g referrer of appendix 1

Note [h] of Appendix 1

In the context of COSEWIC status reports, the term ‘location’ defines a geographically or ecologically distinct area in which a single threatening event can rapidly affect all individuals of the taxon present. The size of the location depends on the area covered by the threatening event and may include part of one or many subpopulations. In this context, locations refer to sites that face similar threats as per the COSEWIC definition

Return to note h referrer of appendix 1

Note [i] of Appendix 1

F=female, M=male, U=unknown sex

Return to note i referrer of appendix 1

Top of Page

Footnotes

Footnote 1

In the context of COSEWIC status reports, the term 'location' defines a geographically or ecologically distinct area in which a single threatening event can rapidly affect all individuals of the taxon present. The size of the location depends on the area covered by the threatening event and may include part of one or many subpopulations.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Top of Page