Management Plan for the Tuberous Indian-plantain (Arnoglossum plantagineum) in Canada - 2015
Species at Risk Act
Management Plan Series
Table of Contents
- Document Information
- Executive Summary
- 1. COSEWIC Species Assessment Information
- 2. Species Status Information
- 3. Species Information
- 4. Threats
- 5. Management Objectives
- 6. Broad Strategies and Conservation Measures
- 7. Measuring Progress
- 8. References
- Appendix A: Sub-national conservation ranks of the Tuberous Indian-plantain in the United States
- Appendix B: Effects on the Environment and Other Species
Cover illustration: © Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service - Ontario
Environment Canada. 2015. Management Plan for the Tuberous Indian-plantain (Arnoglossum plantagineum) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Management Plan Series. Environment Canada, Ottawa. iv + 13 pp.
For copies of the management plan, or for additional information on species at risk, including the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) Status Reports, residence descriptions, action plans, and other related recovery documents, please visit the Species at Risk (SAR) Public Registry.
Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source.
The federal, provincial, and territorial government signatories under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk (1996) agreed to establish complementary legislation and programs that provide for effective protection of species at risk throughout Canada. Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent ministers are responsible for the preparation of management plans for listed species of special concern and are required to report on progress five years after the publication of the final document on the SAR Public Registry.
The Minister of the Environment and Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency is the competent minister under SARA for the Tuberous Indian-plantain and has prepared this management plan as per section 65 of SARA. To the extent possible, it has been prepared in cooperation with the Parks Canada Agency and with the Government of Ontario.
Success in the conservation of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this plan and will not be achieved by Environment Canada, or any other jurisdiction alone. All Canadians are invited to join in supporting and implementing this plan for the benefit of the Tuberous Indian-plantain and Canadian society as a whole.
Implementation of this management plan is subject to appropriations, priorities, and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations.
This management plan was drafted by Jennie L. Pearce (Pearce & Associates Ecological Research) and David Kirk (Aquila Conservation and Environment). Development of this management plan was facilitated by Lee Voisin (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario). Thank you to Donna Stewart (Friends of Oliphant Coastal Environments) and Geoff Peach (Lake Huron Centre for Coastal Conservation) for providing information on the threats and challenges facing the Tuberous Indian-plantain in Oliphant Fen, Frank Burrows and John Haselmayer (Bruce Peninsula National Park) for providing information on the distribution of Tuberous Indian-plantain, Kate Monk (Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority) and Geoff King (Maitland Valley Conservation Authority) for discussions about Tuberous Indian-plantain in Rock Glen Conservation Area and Falls Reserve Conservation Area respectively, and Mark Carabetta and John Urquhart (Ontario Nature) for information on Tuberous Indian-plantain at Petrel Point Nature Reserve. The management plan benefited from input, review, and suggestions from the following individuals: Madeline Austen, Lesley Dunn, Elizabeth Rezek, Rachel deCatanzaro, Allison Foran (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario), Eric Snyder, Amelia Argue (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Michael Patrikeev and Gary Allen (Parks Canada Agency).
Acknowledgement and thanks are given to all other parties that provided advice and input used to help inform the development of this management plan including various Aboriginal organizations and individual citizens and stakeholders who provided input and/or participated in consultation meetings.
Tuberous Indian-plantain is a perennial member of the Aster family (AsteraceaeFootnote1) that is characterized by a rosette of leaves close to the ground, and in June, a central flowering stalk bearing a flat-topped cluster of 30-100 white flower heads. In Canada this species is found only in southern Ontario, where it has been recorded from the following counties: Lambton, Middlesex, Huron, Bruce, Simcoe and Grey. In 1998, it was estimated that there were approximately 5000 flowering plants and many times this number of non-flowering plants occupying an area of approximately 20 km2 in Canada. Recent surveys at Bruce Peninsula National Park and Petrel Point Nature Reserve in 2007-2009 suggest that the Tuberous Indian-plantain population may be much larger along the Bruce Peninsula than previously believed, although population sizes at the other areas are unknown.
Tuberous Indian-plantain is at the northeastern edge of its global range in Ontario, and grows primarily in coastal meadow marsh and fen habitats which are limited in extent. There is no information on Tuberous Indian-plantain genetic diversity, seed viability, or the effect of harsh climatic conditions or herbivores on population viability or persistence. The ecology of Tuberous Indian-plantain is poorly understood. The main threats are believed to be shoreline development (and the associated lawn creation, mowing, and changes to hydrology), in addition to recreational vehicle use along shoreline habitats, along with mowing and trampling of vegetation.
The management objective for Tuberous Indian-plantain is to maintain, and where feasible increase, its current abundance and distribution in Canada and improve knowledge on populations and threats. Broad strategies to achieve this management objective include: Conduct surveys of Tuberous Indian-plantain populations to gather up-to-date data on spatial locations, abundance and threats; conduct outreach and communicate with stakeholders, municipalities and landowners to encourage habitat stewardship; and encourage research to address knowledge gaps.
Recovery efforts for Tuberous Indian-plantain will benefit species found in coastal meadow marsh or fen ecosystems. No species of conservation concern are expected to be detrimentally affected by the conservation activities proposed in this management plan.
1. COSEWICFootnote 2 Species Assessment Information
- Date of Assessment:
- May 2002
- Common Name (population):
- Tuberous Indian-plantain
- Scientific Name:
- Arnoglossum plantagineum
- COSEWIC Status:
- Special Concern
- Reason for Designation:
- Limited occurrences present within five shoreline areas of Lake Huron subject to recreational development and use but with some populations in protected areas.
- Canadian Occurrence:
- COSEWIC Status History:
- Designated Special Concern in April 1988. Status reexamined and confirmed in April 1999 and in May 2002.
2. Species Status Information
Tuberous Indian-plantain occurs in the United States from Michigan west to South Dakota (Figure 1). In the United States this species is not currently ranked (NNR), although globally, this species is ranked as G4G5 (Apparently SecureFootnote3 or SecureFootnote4). In Canada (N3), Ontario (S3) and states bordering the Canadian population (Michigan S3, Ohio S2) the species is ranked as VulnerableFootnote5 or ImperiledFootnote6 (NatureServe 2014, Appendix A).
Tuberous Indian-plantain is listed as Special ConcernFootnote7 under Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). It is also listed as Special ConcernFootnote8 under Ontario's Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA).
The percentage of the global range of Tuberous Indian-plantain found in Canada is estimated to be 4%, where the species occurs at the northeastern edge of its range.
3. Species Information
3.1 Species Description
Tuberous Indian-plantain is a member of the Aster family. This perennial plant forms a rosette of leaves close to the ground; the leaves are long-stalked, smooth, broadly elliptic, palmately-nerved (veins radiating from one point), and up to 17 cm long. In June, it produces a central flowering stalk that can reach 50-100 cm high, bearing a flat-topped cluster of 30-100 white flower heads (Anderson 2006). The seeds disperse from July to August, usually by wind, aided by the pappusFootnote9 (Voss 1996; COSEWIC 2002).
3.2 Populations and Distribution
Tuberous Indian-plantain occurs in Canada and the United States (Figure 1). In the United States, occurrences are known as far south as Texas and Louisiana, as far west as central Texas and as far east as Ohio (NatureServe 2014; Figure 1). In Canada, this species is found only in southern Ontario, where it has been recorded in the following counties: Lambton, Middlesex, Huron, Bruce, Simcoe and Grey (Figure 2).
In Ontario, it is estimated that there are approximately 5000 flowering plants and many times this number of non-flowering plants (COSEWIC 2002). Population size and extent was considered to be stable in 2002 (COSEWIC 2002). Further studies on monitoring of population size and extent are needed to establish up-to-date data records and monitor population trends.
During surveys in 1998, a total of 506 flowering plants were recorded in Bruce Peninsula National Park and Dorcas Bay Nature Reserve (COSEWIC 2002). Between 2006 and 2008, surveyors in Bruce Peninsula National Park counted 1526 flowering plants and 4598 non-flowering plants (Jalava 2009). Jalava and Wilson (2008) noted that the Johnson's Harbour Road population (located on the Bruce Peninsula) had almost doubled in 2008 compared to the 2006 count.
In 2007, an inventory of the Tuberous Indian-plantain was undertaken in Petrel Point Nature Reserve on the South Bruce Peninsula, where it was previously found (Papoulias 2008); thousands of Tuberous Indian-plantain were found in the Graminoid and Shrubby Cinquefoil Meadow Marshes, although the total number of plants was not counted.
Figure 1a. North American distribution of Tuberous Indian-plantain based on White and Maher (1983) in Argus et al. 1982-1987 (COSEWIC 2002).
Long Description for Figure 1a
Figure 1a highlights the distribution of the Tuberous Indian-Plantain. According to the map, it is found in the southern tip of Ontario, mainly along the coast of Lake Huron and in the states from the south of Ontario all the way to Texas and Louisiana.
Figure 1b. North American distribution of Tuberous Indian-plantain based on the North American Plant AtlasFootnote10 (BONAP 2013).
Long Description for Figure 1b
Figure 1b illustrates the presents of the species as well as whether it is native to the area. In Ontario, it is present, native and rare, and not present in the rest of Canada.
Figure 2. Occurrences of Tuberous Indian-plantain in Ontario prepared by Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario using available Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC) data current to 2006.
Long Description for Figure 2
Figure 2 illustrates the occurrence of the plant according to whether it is extant, historic or extirpated. The extant, extirpated, and some of the historic populations are on the coast of Lake Huron. A few historic populations were also found more inland near Lake Simcoe, and near London.
3.3 Needs of the Tuberous Indian-plantain
3.3.1 Habitat and biological needs
In Ontario, Tuberous Indian-plantain is found most often in open sunny areas in shoreline fens and wet, calcareous meadows (COSEWIC 2002). Tuberous Indian Plantain is not found in prairies in Ontario but has been found in tallgrass prairies and pastures in Oklahoma (Winter et al 2013). It is a perennial plant that reproduces only by seed.
Habitat of Tuberous Indian-plantain has been described using Ecological Land Classification types (Lee et al 1998) at Bruce Peninsula National Park (Jalava and Wilson 2008) and at Petrel Point Nature Reserve (Papoulias 2008). At both locations, large numbers of Tuberous Indian-plantain were recorded in Graminoid Coastal Meadow Marsh (MAM4-1) and Shrubby Cinquefoil Coastal Meadow Marsh (MAM4-2). At Bruce Peninsula National Park, Tuberous Indian-plantain was also recorded from:
- Fresh-Moist Tufted Hairgrass Open Alvar Meadow Type (ALO1-5);
- Fresh-Moist Tufted Clubrush Open Alvar Meadow Type (ALO1);
- Slender Sedge Open Fen Type (FEO1-2)
- Red Osier Dogwood Mineral Thicket Swamp (SWT2-5) mosaic
- Shrubby Cinquefoil Shrub Fen Type (FES1-3)
- Tamarack-White Cedar Treed Fen Type (FET1-2).
The ecology of Tuberous Indian-plantain is not entirely understood; there is no information on seed viability, predators or pollinators.
3.3.2 Biological limiting factors
Tuberous Indian-plantain grows primarily in coastal meadow marsh and fen habitats which are limited in extent in Canada. There is no information on genetic diversity, seed viability, or the effect of harsh climatic conditions or herbivores on population viability or persistence.
4.1 Threat Assessment
|Threat||Sub-Threat||Level of ConcernNote a of Table 1||Extent||Occurrence||Frequency||SeverityNote b of Table 1||Causal CertaintyNote c of Table 1|
|Habitat loss or degradation||Shoreline development||High||Widespread||Current||Continuous||Unknown||Unknown|
|Habitat loss or degradation||Recreational vehicles (e.g. ATVs)||Medium||Localized||Current||Continuous||Unknown||Medium|
|Disturbance or harm||Trampling||High||Widespread||Current||Continuous||High||High|
|Disturbance or harm||Mowing||Medium||Localized||Current||Continuous||Medium||High|
Notes of Table 1
- Note [a] of Table 1
Level of Concern: signifies that managing the threat is of (high, medium or low) concern for the conservation of the species, consistent with the management objectives. This criterion considers the assessment of all the information in the table.
- Note [b] of Table 1
Severity: reflects the population-level effect (High: very large population-level effect, Moderate, Low, and Unknown).
- Note [c] of Table 1
Causal Certainty: reflects the degree of evidence that is known for the threat (High: available evidence strongly links the threat to stresses on population viability; Medium: there is a correlation between the threat and population viability e.g. expert opinion; Low: the threat is assumed or plausible).
4.2 Description of Threats
Habitat loss or degradation
Development of the Bruce Peninsula shoreline may pose the greatest threat to Tuberous Indian-plantain if coastal meadow marsh and fen habitats preferred by the species are destroyed or degraded through changes to hydrology. Changes to the hydrology of the fen can drastically alter vegetation and make the system more vulnerable to invasive species (Environment Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2009). Coastal meadow marshes are often under intense pressure from cottage and condominium development, municipal road construction and drainage improvements (Bakowsky 1995); construction adjacent to coastal meadow marsh communities may all result in hydrological changes and loss of habitat. The impact of shoreline development on coastal meadow marsh ecosystems is not known Habitat loss will fragment the Tuberous Indian-plantain populations along the Bruce Peninsula.
COSEWIC (2002) considered the main populations along the Bruce Peninsula to be at risk from residential development and the associated creation and mowing of lawns and ATV use. Vehicle and ATV use of the shoreline in and around the large Tuberous Indian-plantain population at Oliphant Fen Nature Reserve is significant, with this area historically used as a parking lot by beach users. Recently, heavy vehicles have also used this area to access off-shore islands. Uncontrolled vehicle access to the fen has resulted in numerous tracks being created and maintained through the fen. Coastal meadow marshes and fens have very specific hydrology, and vehicle ruts can alter surface flow and make the system more vulnerable to invasive species (Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2009).
Within Bruce Peninsula National Park, illegal ATV use has also been noted (Brinker 2007; Jalava and Wilson 2008). Trampling of vegetation by park visitors may also occur (COSEWIC 2002) and may result in death or damage to individual plants. Current monitoring of the populations at this location makes it difficult to ascertain the impacts of these activities on Tuberous Indian-plantain.
Disturbance or harm
Little is known about the remaining populations on the Maitland, Ausable or Thames Rivers, and populations within the Rock Glen and Falls Reserve Conservation Areas are not monitored or managed (COSEWIC 2002). COSEWIC (2002) considered sites along the Ausable and Maitland Rivers to be at risk from trampling by anglers and fossil hunters and sites along the Lake Huron shoreline to be at risk from mowing and lawn creation.
5. Management Objectives
The management objective for Tuberous Indian-plantain is to maintain, and where feasible increase, its current abundance and distribution in Canada and improve knowledge on populations and threats.
6. Broad Strategies and Conservation Measures
6.1 Actions Already Completed or Currently Underway
Parks Canada Agency (1998) published a management plan for Bruce Peninsula National Park, which is currently being updated to actively protect the habitat of native species including Tuberous Indian-plantain.
A management plan for the Oliphant coastline was written by the Lake Huron Centre for Coastal Conservation (2009) and uploaded to the Friends of Oliphant Coastal Environments website. This plan focuses on identifying threats to the Oliphant coastal ecosystem, and providing management recommendations to increase public awareness and reduce the threats associated with human use of this ecosystem. Tuberous Indian-plantain is specifically considered in this plan.
Petrel Point Nature Reserve is a 24 ha reserve located on the coast of Lake Huron, which contained 1400 flowering Tuberous Indian-plantain plants in 1998 (COSEWIC 2002). In 2009, nine ha were added to the reserve to act as a buffer to the coastal vegetation (Ontario Nature 2010). In 2011, another 0.7 ha was donated, making the current size of the reserve approximately 34 ha (Ontario Nature 2011).
Several surveys, as referenced in this document, have been completed to fill knowledge gaps on Tuberous Indian-plantain populations.
6.2 Broad Strategies
The broad strategies for this management plan are as follows:
- Conduct surveys of Tuberous Indian-plantain populations to gather up-to-date data on spatial locations, abundance and threats;
- Conduct outreach and communicate with stakeholders, municipalities and landowners to encourage habitat stewardship
- Encourage research to address knowledge gaps
6.3 Conservation Measures
|Conservation Measure||Sub-Conservation Measure||PriorityFootnote11||Threats or Concerns Addressed||Timeline|
|1. Conduct surveys and gather up-to-date data||Gather current data on extant population distribution and size||High||Disturbance or harm||2015-2020|
|1. Conduct surveys and gather up-to-date data||Monitor populations||High||Disturbance or harm||2015-2020|
|1. Conduct surveys and gather up-to-date data||Monitor identified threats||High/Medium||Habitat loss or degradation||2015-2020|
|2. Conduct outreach and communication with stakeholders||Promote awareness of Tuberous Indian-plantain, coastal meadow marshes, fens, and the identification of new populations||Medium||All threats||2015-Ongoing|
|2. Conduct outreach and communication with stakeholders||Promote awareness for the Canadian population at each of the locations within the counties listed in Section 3.2||High||Disturbance or harm||2015-Ongoing|
|3. Encourage research to address knowledge gaps||Conduct research of the species and its habitat at extant sites and, where appropriate, extirpated sites to improve knowledge of threats (including level of threat) to the species.||High||All threats||2015-2020|
7. Measuring Progress
Every five years, success of the implementation of this management plan will be measured against the following performance indicators:
- Additional data on the species' population abundance and distribution and threats to the species in Canada are collected.
- Known populations of Tuberous Indian-plantain and the habitat where it is currently known to occur have been maintained, or where feasible, increased.
- Threats to Tuberous Indian-plantain populations in Canada are reduced.
Anderson, L.C. 2006. Arnoglossum. Flora of North America. 20:621-625.
Bakowsky, W. 1995. Rare communities of Ontario: Great Lakes Coastal Meadow Marshes. NHIC Newsletter Volume 2, Number 2, Spring 1995.
Brinker, S. 2007. Hydro-riparian Species at Risk Inventory - Bruce Peninsula National Park. Prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Bruce Peninsula National Park, Tobermory Ontario. Prepared by Dougan & Associates Ecological Consulting and Design. 84 pp. + appendices.
COSEWIC. 2002. COSEWIC Assessment and update status report on the Tuberous Indian-plantain Arnoglossum plantagineum in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 11 pp.
Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Nearshore areas of the Great Lakes 2009. State of the Great Lakes Ecosystem Conference 2008 Background paper. Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Jalava, J.V and P.L. Wilson. 2008. Hydro-riparian Species at Risk Inventory – Bruce Peninsula National Park, Phase II. Prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Bruce Peninsula National Park / Fathom Five National Marine Park, Tobermory, Ontario. iv + 74 pp.
Jalava, J.V. 2009. Hydro-riparian Species at Risk Inventory – Bruce Peninsula National Park, Final Report, January 2009. Prepared for Parks Canada Agency, Bruce Peninsula National Park/ Fathom Five National Marine Park, Tobermory, Ontario. vi + 152 pp.
Lake Huron Centre for Coastal Conservation. 2009. Protecting Oliphant's Coast. Coastal Stewardship. Friends of Oliphant Coastal Environments.
Lee, H.T., W.D. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological Land Classification for Southern Ontario: First Approximation and its Application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
NatureServe. 2014. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Accessed: April 17, 2014).
Ontario Nature. 2011. Nature Network News (Accessed April 25, 2014).
Papoulias, M. 2008. Biological inventory report for the Petrel Point Nature Reserve. Results of a 2007 survey of vascular plants and vegetative communities. Ontario Nature (Federation of Ontario Naturalists), Toronto, ON. 37pp + v + appendices.
Parks Canada Agency. 1998. Bruce Peninsula National Park Management Plan. Parks Canada Agency.
Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 622 pp.
Winter, P.L., K.R. Hickman, C.L. Groad, S.D. Fuhlendorf and M.S. Murphy. 2013. Seasonal fires, bison grazing and the tallgrass prairie forb Arnoglossum plantagineum Raf. Natural Areas Journal 33(3): 327-338.
Appendix A: Sub-national conservation ranks of the Tuberous Indian-plantain in the United States
Appendix B: Effects on the Environment and Other Species
A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's (FSDS) goals and targets.
Conservation planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that implementation of management plans may inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the management plan itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.
This management plan will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the conservation of the Tuberous Indian-plantain. The potential for the plan to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The SEA concluded that this plan will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail any significant adverse effects. The reader should refer to the following sections of the document in particular: Habitat and biological needs, Conservation measures, and Actions already completed and underway.
Recovery efforts that are focused on Tuberous Indian-plantain will particularly benefit the globally rare coastal meadow marsh (and fen) community. Species at risk found in coastal meadowmarsh or fen ecosystems along the Bruce Peninsula include the Eastern Prairie-fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea), Dwarf Lake Iris (Iris lacustris), Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus), Queensnake (Regina septemvittata), Spotted Turtle (Clemmys guttata), Eastern Foxsnake (Pantherophis gloydi) and Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus). No species of conservation concern are expected to be detrimentally affected.
- Footnote 1
Includes asters, daisies, goldenrods, sunflowers and many others
- Footnote 2
COSEWIC – Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada
- Footnote 3
Apparently Secure (G4/N4/S4): At a fairly low risk of extirpation in the jurisdiction due to an extensive range and/or many populations or occurrences, but with possible cause for some concern as a result of local recent declines, threats, or other factors.
- Footnote 4
Secure (G5/N5/S5): At very low risk of extinction or elimination due to a very extensive range, abundant populations or occurrences, and little to no concern from declines or threats.
- Footnote 5
Vulnerable (G3/N3/S3):At moderate risk of extirpation in the jurisdiction due to a fairly restricted range, relatively few populations or occurrences, recent and widespread declines, threats, or other factors.
- Footnote 6
Imperiled (G2/N2/S2): At high risk of extirpation in the jurisdiction due to restricted range, few populations or occurrences, steep declines, severe threats, or other factors.
- Footnote 7
A wildlife species that may become a threatened or an endangered species because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.
- Footnote 8
A species that lives in the wild in Ontario, is not endangered or threatened, but may become threatened or endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics and identified threats.
- Footnote 9
The pappus is the modified calyx, the part of an individual disk, ray or ligule floret surrounding the base of the corolla, in flower heads of the plant family Asteraceae. The pappus may be composed of bristles (sometimes feathery), awns, scales, or may be absent. In some species such as Tuberous Indian Plantain, feathery bristles of the pappus function as a "parachute" which enables the seed to be carried by the wind.
- Footnote 10
Brown: Species not present; Green: Species present and native; Yellow: Species present, native and rare.
- Footnote 11
"Priority" reflects the degree to which the measure contributes directly to the conservation of the species or is an essential precursor to a measure that contributes to the conservation of the species. High priority measures are considered those most likely to have an immediate and/or direct influence on attaining the management objective for the species. Medium priority measures may have a less immediate or less direct influence on reaching the management objective, but are still important for the management of the population. Low priority conservation measures will likely have an indirect or gradual influence on reaching the management objective, but are considered important contributions to the knowledge base and/or public involvement and acceptance of the species.
- Date Modified: