Harbour Seal Lacs des Loups Marins subspecies
Scientific Name: Phoca vitulina mellonae
Other/Previous Names: Harbour Seal (Lac des Loups Marins landlocked population)
Taxonomy Group: Mammals
Last COSEWIC Assessment: November 2007
Last COSEWIC Designation: Endangered
SARA Status: Schedule 3, Special Concern - (SARA Schedule 1 provisions do not apply)
Image of Harbour Seal Lacs des Loups Marins subspecies
The Harbour Seal Lac des Loups Marins subspecies is a small, dark subspecies of the Harbour Seal. The curvature of its lower jaw is enlarged. Generally, the subspecies is identified not by its appearance, but by where it lives. The Lacs des Loups Marins seals reside in freshwater year round, which only one other population of Harbour Seals does (the other occurs in British Columbia). The result is that the species is geographically isolated from oceanic Harbour Seals.
Distribution and Population
The subspecies occurs in Lacs des Loups Marins (Upper and Lower Seal Lakes), an area situated 160 km east of Hudson Bay on the Ungava peninsula of northern Quebec. The seals have also been reported in surrounding lakes and rivers, but four individuals surveyed in the fall of 1995 remained within the immediate vicinity of Lower Seals Lake throughout the entire survey period. The population has been comprised of 100 to 600 animals since 1957. The most recent estimate is 100 animals. It is believed that the Lacs des Loups Marins population was established between 3000 and 8000 years ago, during a time of marine submergence.
The seals feed exclusively in freshwater, consuming mostly fish. They rely on strong currents to free some areas of ice. They also depend on ice fissures and on air pockets partly created by the shoreline's complex geometry.
Pupping occurs from mid-April to mid-May. This time period is substantially in advance of other Harbour Seals occuring at a similar latitude. Pupping likely occurs in under-ice shelters. The subspecies probably winters in the larger bodies of water (Lac des Loups Marins, Lac Bourdel and Petit Lac des Loups Marins). It may disperse to outlying smaller bodies of water when the ice melts.
Some populations of Harbour Seals have been extirpated or drastically reduced by human activity. Hunting is one cause. Entanglement in fishing gear is another.
Species that have been designated at risk by COSEWIC since the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was written must be added to Schedule 1 through a regulatory amendment. Information on this procedure is available in the Assessment section. If Harbour Seal Lacs des Loups Marins subspecies is added to Schedule 1, it will benefit from the protections afforded by SARA. More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
Marine mammal regulations pursuant to the 1867 Fisheries Act could provide the species with legal protection.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
7 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Status Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Assessments (1 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (1 record(s) found.)
- Orders (2 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Status Reports
COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Harbour Seal Atlantic and Eastern Arctic subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor and Lacs des Loups Marins subspecies Phoca vitulina mellonae in Canada (2008)The harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) is a small pinniped species with a variable pelage colouration of mottled brown, black and yellowish-white. In eastern Canada, few individuals exceed 154 cm and 100 kg, and 30 years of age. The subspecies occurring on Canada’s west coast is P. v. richardsi. Harbour seals in eastern Canada comprise two designatable units (DUs) that are different subspecies. One DU, P. v. mellonae, consists of the freshwater seals of the Lacs des Loups Marins area of Québec’s Ungava peninsula, and is endemic to Québec and Canada. The second unit, P. v. concolor, consists of the harbour seals found on the Canadian Atlantic and Arctic coasts and extends into Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States.
COSEWIC Annual Reports
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