Species Profile

Tuberous Indian-plantain

Scientific Name: Arnoglossum plantagineum
Other/Previous Names: Cacalia plantaginea
Taxonomy Group: Vascular Plants
Range: Ontario
Last COSEWIC Assessment: May 2002
Last COSEWIC Designation: Special Concern
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Special Concern


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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Tuberous Indian-plantain

Tuberous Indian-plantain Photo 1

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Description

The Tuberous Indian-plantain is a perennial plant that is very conspicuous when it is in flower. The flowering stalk is 60 to 180 cm tall and supports a cluster of 30 to 100 white flowers. The leaves are larger at the bottom of the plant and smaller toward the top. Plants that have no flowering stalk are composed of a dense radiating cluster of leaves growing at ground level (rosette).

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Distribution and Population

Tuberous Indian-plantain occurs in the central United States from Ohio and Michigan south to Texas and Alabama. It reaches the northern extent of its range in Canada, where it occurs only in southern Ontario. The principle range of the species in southern Ontario is along the west side of the Bruce Peninsula. Population estimates from 1998 indicate that there are approximately 5000 flowering shoots at 13 sites. Comparison with information from 1988 reveals that the population is apparently stable, but there may be a slight decline in habitat availability.

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Habitat

The Tuberous Indian-plantain requires wet, calcium-rich meadows or shoreline fens.

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Biology

Most populations of Tuberous Indian-plantain contain both flowering and non-flowering plants. Flowering occurs in June and July; and the plantain reproduces only through seeds, which are dispersed in July and August.

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Threats

The main threat to Canadian populations of the Tuberous Indian-plantain is the loss of habitat to cottage property development (including drainage and lawn creation). Plants at some sites are vulnerable to trampling by fishermen, fossil hunters, and all-terrain vehicles.

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Protection

Federal Protection

More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Plants within Bruce Peninsula National Park also benefit from the protection of the National Parks Act. There is no provincial legislation that protects the Tuberous Indian-plantain, and the majority of the sites where the plant occurs are on private land. Several sites, however, are in provincial parks, conservation areas, or nature reserves, where an effort is made to protect the plant and its habitat.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

9 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

COSEWIC Assessments

Response Statements

  • Response Statements - Tuberous Indian-plantain (2004)

    A response statement is a communications document that identifies how the Minister of the Environment intends to respond to the assessment of a wildlife species by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The document provides a start to the listing and recovery process for those species identified as being at risk, and provides timelines for action to the extent possible.

Action Plans

  • Multi-species Action Plan for Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park of Canada (2016)

    Bruce Peninsula National Park (BPNP) and Fathom Five National Marine Park (FFNMP) lie at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula which separates Georgian Bay from Lake Huron. The peninsula is 90 km in length and its most prominent feature is the Niagara Escarpment which runs along the entire eastern edge. Within BPNP, the escarpment forms the Georgian Bay shoreline and is recognized as part of the core area of the Niagara Escarpment UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve.  BPNP was established by the federal government in 1987 to protect a representative example of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands natural region. Because of the fragmented nature of the park properties, many of the stresses on the park’s ecosystem originate from outside its boundaries. For this reason, First Nations, local residents, non-governmental organizations, and other groups and land users play an important role in managing, restoring, and protecting the northern Bruce ecosystem. 

Management Plans

  • Management Plan for the Tuberous Indian-plantain (Arnoglossum plantagineum) in Canada (2015)

    The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency are the competent ministers under SARA for the Tuberous Indian-plantain and have prepared this management plan as per section 65 of SARA. To the extent possible it has been prepared in cooperation with the Parks Canada Agency and with the Government of Ontario.

Orders

  • Order Acknowledging Receipt of the Assessments Done Pursuant to Subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (2004)

    This Order acknowledges receipt by the Governor in Council of the assessments of the status of wildlife species done pursuant to subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The purpose of SARA is to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct, to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened.
  • Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act (2005)

    Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), is amended by Order of the Governor in Council (GIC), on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, by the addition of 73 species. This Order is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and follows consultations with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, stakeholders and the public, and analysis of costs and benefits to Canadians.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species Under the Species At Risk Act: March 2004 (2004)

    The Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003 as part of its strategy for the protection of wildlife species at risk. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, hereinafter referred to as the 'SARA list'. Canadians are invited to comment on whether all or some of the species included in this document should be added to the SARA list.

Recovery Document Posting Plans

  • Environment and Climate Change Canada's Three-Year Recovery Document Posting Plan (2016)

    Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Three-Year Recovery Document Posting Plan identifies the species for which recovery documents will be posted each fiscal year starting in 2014-2015. Posting this three year plan on the Species at Risk Public Registry is intended to provide transparency to partners, stakeholders, and the public about Environment and Climate Change Canada’s plan to develop and post these proposed recovery strategies and management plans. However, both the number of documents and the particular species that are posted in a given year may change slightly due to a variety of circumstances. Last update March 17, 2017