Scientific Name: Callophrys irus
Other/Previous Names: Callophrys [Incisalia] irus
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
Last COSEWIC Assessment: April 2010
Last COSEWIC Designation: Extirpated
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Extirpated
Image of Frosted Elfin
The Frosted Elfin is a hairstreak butterfly with a largely brown upperside and variegated underside. It has a markedly disjointed white and dark postmedial line, a short "tail" on the hind wing, and a dark "thecla" spot near the base of the tail. The larva is pale green, with paler markings.
Distribution and Population
The Frosted Elfin subspecies whose range formerly included southern Ontario now occurs from Florida north to New England, and west to Alabama and Wisconsin. In the eastern parts of its range it occurs in mostly small patches of habitat, but larger populations are found further west, where the habitat is more contiguous. The only Canadian site was near the St. Williams Forestry station in Halimand-Norfolk County, Ontario. It appears to have occured in very small numbers at this locality, and the last one was seen in 1988.
The butterfly occurs predominantly in oak savannah and pine barren habitats, where lupines grow. It prefers edge areas such as openings in more densely canopied woodland, right-of-ways, powerline cuts, etc. Occasional mowing has been shown to be preferable to rotational burns in maintaining this habitat in Wisconsin.
The adults emerge in the spring and the flight period is usually over by mid-June. The males are territorial. Females lay their eggs on the flowering spikes of lupines (Lupinus perennis), preferring those which are in full sunshine. The larvae first feed on lupine flowers, then on developing seed pods. Pupation takes place either in the leaf litter at the base of the host plant, or under the ground.
Reasons for extirpation
Succession, if left unchecked, results in shading and crowding out of the patches of lupine that support Frosted Elfins. The territorial behaviour of the males, the females' preference for ovipositing on flowering lupine spikes that are in full sunshine, and the cannibalistic behaviour of larvae all contribute to reduce the effective population size of the species.
Federal ProtectionThe Frosted Elfin is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
Recovery Progress and Activities
Summary of Progress to Date In cooperation with the Karner Blue Recovery Team, the Canadian Wildlife Service and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources are preparing a recovery strategy for the Karner Blue and Frosted Elfin in Canada. The recovery goals and objectives are aiming to create enough suitable habitat for the Karner Blue in three geographically distinct areas (Northfolk, Lambton and Northumberland Counties) so that the species can be reintroduced into Canada. By completing recovery actions for the Karner Blue, especially involving the restoration of oak savannah and tallgrass prairie habitat, the Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing will benefit, as they depend on the same habitat as well (the two species, however, are only known historically from the Norfolk location). Recovery efforts for the Karner Blue are much more advanced than for the Frosted Elfin and Persius Duskywing, largely due to the significant progress made on recovery of this species in the United States. Summary of Research/Monitoring A research study, led by York University in 2004, assessed the suitability of each of the restored oak savannah areas in Ontario targeted for Karner Blue reintroduction by collecting quantitative field data to determine if they meet a minimum ecological standard for reintroduction. Although none of the sites met all the minimum standards for Karner Blue reintroduction, further restoration and management is possible to improve the habitats so that they are suitable for reintroduction. Specific recommendations, required to achieve minimum standards for reintroduction, were provided in the study for each area. Activities based on these recommendations are ongoing. At Alderville First Nation, a Black oak savannah and tallgrass Prairie project is underway that aims to improve and protect Karner Blue and Persius Duskywing butterfly habitat, and associated rare tallgrass habitats. A volunteer Wild Lupine planting program has been underway for seven years, and the success of these plantings is being assessed through the measurement of Lupine development, density, and survival. The evaluation of the lupine population is necessary to ensure the plants are self-propagating and the site is suitable for supporting viable populations of Lupine. Protocols for transport and release of butterflies have been developed in the U.S. and the Toronto Zoo has been working on a captive rearing protocol for the Karner Blue. In 2006, Pinery Provincial Park completed a study on second brood nectaring plant availability. The results will be used to guide more restoration work to increase diversity of second brood nectaring species. Summary of Recovery Activities There has been a number of oak savanna restoration projects carried out in each of three target areas for reintroduction (Lambton County, Norfolk County, and Northumberland County). These undertakings have provided a great deal of experience and knowledge in the reclamation of sites. Lambton County – Lake Huron shorelineAt Pinery Provincial Park, habitat improvement initiatives have been underway since 1997. The Park has regularly collected and planted Wild Lupine seeds since 1993 to increase regeneration and also to connect this location with the Port Franks location to facilitate dispersal between populations. Seeds from nectar producing flowers, such as Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) and New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus), have been planted to provide a food source to adult butterflies. Outreach material on the Karner Blue butterfly is on display at the visitor’s centre and park tabloids/newsletters are released regularly to inform the public of recovery activities. The Karner Blue Sanctuary in Port Franks also has undergone habitat restoration since 1992 through the removal of tree plantations and thinning of forests to open up the area and increase the growth of the former oak savannah vegetation. Nectar source plantings have been conducted in the past at this location. Norfolk County – St. Williams The St. Williams Forest is managed as a conservation reserve by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Its combined diversity of ecological communities (including oak savanna, oak woodland, other tallgrass communities; and sand barrens, forests, wetlands, and streams) supports one of the highest concentrations of species at risk in Ontario and Canada. A goal of the management of this area is to maintain and restore native ecological communities and their associated species. The area has undergone restoration (thinning and controlled burns) to reclaim habitat in locations historically known to support both the Karner Blue and Frosted Elfin. Northumberland County – Rice Lake PlainsA Joint Initiative among the Nature Conservancy of Canada, Ontario Parks, County of Northumberland, Lower Trent Conservation, Ganaraska Region Conservation Authority, the Wetland Habitat Fund, conservation partners, and the local landowners is working together to protect and steward one of Ontario's last remaining sites of tallgrass prairie and black oak savanna and the species that live there. Numerous activities are underway in the area. With assistance from the Habitat Stewardship program, field reclamation measures to improve or create tallgrass and savannah habitat have been undertaken at Alderville First Nation, including restoring original vegetation by planting native prairie seeds, removing encroaching growth, and conducting controlled burns. Wild Lupine plantings have occurred annually since 2002 to increase the population and density for Karner Blue Butterfly habitat. There are currently 32 ha of savanna and tallgrass habitat available, with another 9 ha of old field slated for restoration in the future. In 2007, Alderville First Nation is planning to seek out local residents and inform them of the value of tallgrass habitat and the species at risk it supports. Articles in community newsletters, displays, websites, and audio/visual presentations are keeping the local public aware of activities, volunteer opportunities, workshops, and meetings to support the stewardship for the Karner Blue. Moreover, the Toronto Zoo has produced outreach materials (e.g. The Oak Savannah and Karner Blue Butterfly Wheel) for educational and fundraising purposes. URLs Ontario’s Biodiversity: Species at Risk: Frosted Elfinhttp://www.rom.on.ca/ontario/risk.php?doc_type=fact&lang=&id=56 Butterflies of Canada: Frosted Elfinhttp://www.cbif.gc.ca/spp_pages/butterflies/species/FrostedElfin_e.php Butterflies of Canada: Persius Duskywinghttp://digir.agr.gc.ca/spp_pages/butterflies/species/PersiusDuskywing_e.php Ontario’s Biodiversity: Species at Risk: Karner Bluehttp://www.rom.on.ca/ontario/risk.php?doc_type=fact&lang=&id=57
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
6 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Assessments (1 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (1 record(s) found.)
- Orders (1 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
- Recovery Document Posting Plans (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Annual Reports
COSEWIC Annual Report - 2010 (2010)Under Canada’s Species At Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. During the past year, COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings and reviewed the status of 79 wildlife species (species, subspecies, populations). During the meeting of November 2009, COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of the status of 28 wildlife species. COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of an additional 51 wildlife species (species, subspecies and populations) during their April 2010 meeting. For species already found on Schedule 1 of SARA, the classification of 32 species was reviewed by COSEWIC and the status of the wildlife species was confirmed to be in the same category (extirpated - no longer found in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere, endangered, threatened or of special concern). The wildlife species assessment results for the 2009-2010 reporting period include the following: Extirpated: 6 Endangered: 39 Threatened: 16 Special Concern: 17 Data Deficient: 1 This report transmits to the Minister the status of 46 species newly classified as extirpated, endangered, threatened or of special concern, fulfilling COSEWIC’s obligations under SARA Section 24 and 25. A full detailed summary of the assessment for each species and the reason for the designation can be found in Appendix I of the attached report. Since its inception, COSEWIC has assessed 602 wildlife species in various risk categories, including 262 Endangered, 151 Threatened, 166 Special Concern and 23 Extirpated. In addition, 13 wildlife species have been assessed as Extinct. Also, to date, 46 wildlife species have been identified by COSEWIC as Data Deficient and 166 wildlife species were assessed as Not at Risk. This year has been a particularly productive year for COSEWIC’s Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) Subcommittee. In April 2010 COSEWIC approved the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Process and Protocol Guidelines, providing clear and agreed principles for the gathering of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge to carry out COSEWIC functions as required under Section 15(2) of SARA (See Appendix III of the attached report). We are grateful for the rich and enthusiastic contribution made by community elders and experts in helping the ATK Subcommittee prepare the ATK protocols.
Recovery Document Posting Plans
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