Species Profile

Warty Jumping-slug

Scientific Name: Hemphillia glandulosa
Taxonomy Group: Molluscs
Range: British Columbia
Last COSEWIC Assessment: May 2013
Last COSEWIC Designation: Special Concern
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Special Concern


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Quick Links: | Taxonomy | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Team | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Warty Jumping-slug

Warty Jumping-slug Photo 1

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Taxonomy

Slugs are a group of animals within the class Mollusca that share a similar body form. They usually have no external shell, but when there is one, the animal is incapable of retracting into it, as snails can.

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Description

Adult Warty Jumping-slugs are usually about 20 mm long and have a prominent dorsal hump. The body is whitish or grey with darker markings, the sides are lighter coloured, and the tentacles are dark blue. A flattened shell is visible through a slit in the skin on the back of the slug. The body is compressed below the dorsal hump and raised into a ridge on the tail. Warty Jumping-slugs have a distinctive horn at the end of the tail, which hangs over a mucus pore.

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Distribution and Population

The known range of the Warty Jumping-slug is small and extends from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, through Washington to west-central Oregon in the United States. In Canada, the species is known from southern Vancouver Island south of Nanaimo, where it is at the northern edge of its range. There are no known records of the Warty Jumping-slug from the British Columbia mainland. The Warty Jumping-slug is known from 14 localities in British Columbia. However, not all suitable habitat has been searched, and it is likely that this jumping-slug occurs at additional sites. It has a patchy distribution in a restricted range and occurs at low densities. Usually only one to three individuals are found per site, but as many as seven have been counted in one location in the recent past and 12 were found at one site in 1900. There is no information on population size or trends.

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Habitat

The Warty Jumping-slug occupies a variety of moist, forested habitats and riparian sites from low to middle elevations. The presence of adequate shelter is important. Suitable cover includes decaying logs and other woody debris, leaf litter, and the bases of Sword Ferns. The Warty Jumping-slug occupies forests of different ages, from old growth to younger stages. Although it has been found in some stands that were less than 15 years old, it is more common in stands that are more than 35 years old.

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Biology

The species is hermaphroditic (having both male and female reproductive organs), and individuals likely lay their eggs in leaf litter and moist, rotting wood. Eggs deposited by slugs kept in captivity were tear-shaped, transparent, and about 3 mm long by 2 mm wide. Mating has been observed in the autumn on Vancouver Island. The slugs mature within their first year and probably seldom live more than one year. The anti-predator behaviour of jumping-slugs is unique and consists of writhing and leaping in response to disturbance. The dispersal ability of the Warty Jumping-slug is probably poor, as reflected by the scattered distribution pattern of the species.

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Threats

The greatest threat to this species is clear-cut logging, which results in habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. Logging alters the quality and quantity of coarse woody debris used by the Warty Jumping-slug for refuge. It isolates populations and restricts gene flow because this slug is relatively sedentary and has poor dispersal abilities. The low number of scattered populations leaves the species more vulnerable to natural and human disturbances, and isolated sites where the jumping-slug dies out are unlikely to be recolonized by this species.

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Protection

Federal Protection

More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Team

BC Invertebrates Recovery Team

  • Jennifer Heron - Chair/Contact - Government of BC
    Phone: 604-222-6759  Fax: 604-660-1849  Send Email

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

13 record(s) found.

Report on the Progress of Recovery Strategy Implementation

  • Report on the Progress of Recovery Strategy Implementation for the Wavyrayed Lampmussel, Northern Riffleshell, Snuffbox, Round Pigtoe, Mudpuppy Mussel and Rayed Bean in Canada for the Period 2006–2011 (2013)

    As a result of the overlap in the historical and current ranges of the Wavyrayed Lampmussel, Northern Riffleshell, Snuffbox, Round Pigtoe, Salamander Mussel (formerly known as the Mudpuppy Mussel) and Rayed Bean, there is substantial commonality in threats to their continued survival. A key component in progress toward fulfilling recovery objectives has been the systematic collaboration with existing ecosystem recovery teams. This collaboration has taken the form of multiple research projects and stewardship teams that actively coordinate and monitor habitat improvement projects on the Ausable, Sydenham, Grand and Thames river systems, as well as Walpole Island. These collaborative efforts resulted in concrete progress in the form of habitat improvement and protection, and important biological insights of these species.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC assessment and status report on the warty jumping-slug Hemphillia glandulosa in Canada (2003)

    The warty jumping-slug, Hemphillia glandulosa Bland & W.G. Binney, 1875, is one of seven described species of jumping-slugs. The genus, a member of the gastropod family Arionidae, is endemic to western North America. There are no recognized subspecies of the warty jumping-slug; H. burringtoni Pilsbry, 1948, originally described as a subspecies of H. glandulosa, is now regarded as a separate species. The warty jumping-slug is a small species with length of adults usually about 20 mm. There is a prominent dorsal hump (containing the viscera) that is covered by the mantle, and a flattened shell that is visible through a slit in the mantle. The body is depressed below the dorsal hump, and raised into a high dorsal keel on the tail; the end of the tail has a caudal mucus pore, which is overhung by a fleshy protuberance, often called the caudal "horn."

COSEWIC Assessments

  • COSEWIC Assessment - Warty Jumping-slug (2003)

    Designated Special Concern in May 2003. Assessment based on a new status report.
  • COSEWIC Status Appraisal Summary on the Warty Jumping-slug Hemphillia glandulosa in Canada (2013)

    This small slug has a restricted range and patchy distribution on Vancouver Island, where it exists at the northern extremity of its range. Habitat loss and fragmentation, mainly from forestry activities, disturb the shady, moist forest floor conditions and coarse woody debris required by the slugs and may be restricting dispersal movements. Residential and recreational developments are emerging as a new threat on the southwest coast of the island. The low numbers of scattered populations render it vulnerable to both natural and human disturbances.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Warty Jumping-slug (2013)

    This small slug has a restricted range and patchy distribution on Vancouver Island, where it exists at the northern extremity of its range. Habitat loss and fragmentation, mainly from forestry activities, disturb the shady, moist forest floor conditions and coarse woody debris required by the slugs and may be restricting dispersal movements. Residential and recreational developments are emerging as a new threat on the southwest coast of the island. The low numbers of scattered populations render it vulnerable to both natural and human disturbances.
  • Response Statements - Warty Jumping-slug (2004)

    A response statement is a communications document that identifies how the Minister of the Environment intends to respond to the assessment of a wildlife species by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The document provides a start to the listing and recovery process for those species identified as being at risk, and provides timelines for action to the extent possible.

Action Plans

  • Multi-species Action Plan for Pacific Rim National Park Reserve of Canada (2016)

    Backed by the Insular Mountain Range of Vancouver Island and facing the open Pacific Ocean, Pacific Rim National Park Reserve of Canada (Pacific Rim NPR) protects and presents the rich natural and cultural heritage of Canada's west coast. Pacific Rim NPR consists of three distinct units, the Long Beach Unit, Broken Group Islands Unit, and West Coast Trail Unit, each offering a range of unique visitor experiences. With significant areas (51,216 ha in total) of old growth, temperate rainforest, coastal dune systems, wetlands and foreshore, and marine habitats, the park demonstrates the interconnectedness between land, sea, and people. These natural wonders are interwoven with the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations culture (past and present), and that of European explorers and settlers.

Management Plans

  • Management Plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Hemophillia glandulosa) in Canada (2015)

    The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency are the competent ministers under SARA for the Warty Jumping-slug and have prepared this management plan as per section 65 of SARA. To the extent possible it has been prepared in cooperation with British Columbia Ministry of Environment. SARA section 69 allows the Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it meets the requirements under SARA for the content. The B.C. Ministry of Environment led the development of the attached management plan for the Warty Jumping-slug (Part 2) in cooperation with Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency.

Orders

  • Order Acknowledging Receipt of the Assessments Done Pursuant to Subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (2004)

    This Order acknowledges receipt by the Governor in Council of the assessments of the status of wildlife species done pursuant to subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The purpose of SARA is to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct, to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened.
  • Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act (2005)

    Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), is amended by Order of the Governor in Council (GIC), on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, by the addition of 73 species. This Order is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and follows consultations with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, stakeholders and the public, and analysis of costs and benefits to Canadians.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species Under the Species At Risk Act: March 2004 (2004)

    The Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003 as part of its strategy for the protection of wildlife species at risk. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, hereinafter referred to as the 'SARA list'. Canadians are invited to comment on whether all or some of the species included in this document should be added to the SARA list.

Recovery Document Posting Plans

  • Environment and Climate Change Canada's Three-Year Recovery Document Posting Plan (2016)

    Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Three-Year Recovery Document Posting Plan identifies the species for which recovery documents will be posted each fiscal year starting in 2014-2015. Posting this three year plan on the Species at Risk Public Registry is intended to provide transparency to partners, stakeholders, and the public about Environment and Climate Change Canada’s plan to develop and post these proposed recovery strategies and management plans. However, both the number of documents and the particular species that are posted in a given year may change slightly due to a variety of circumstances. Last update March 31, 2017